St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio's
Cardinal-Bishop of Alba & Doctor of the Church
of Peter Lombard, Bishop of Paris
Latin text taken from Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae,
Ad Claras Aquas, 1887, Vol iii, p. 1-2.
Notes by the Quarrachi Editors.
Deus autem, qui dives est in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem suam, qua dilexit nos, cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos Christo, cuius gratia estis salvati.
Verbum istud scribitur secundo1 ad Ephesios, in quo insinuatur nobis nostrae redemptionis mysterium, ac per hoc manifestatur nobis subiectum libri Sententiarum et specialiter quantum ad tertiam partem ipsius, in qua explicatur nostrae redemptionis sacramentum factae per Christum. Possunt autem in hoc verbo quatuor notari pertinentia ad reparationem2 generis humani, quorum primum est auctor reparationis; secundum est lapsus reparabilis; tertium persona Reparatoris; quartum autem et ultimum salus hominis reparati.
Auctor autem reparationis notatur, cum dicitur: Deus autem, qui dives est in misericordia etc. Ipse enim sua largiflua misericordia, non aliunde motus disposuit reparare genus humanum, sicut scribitur in Ioannis tertio:3 Sic Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret, ut omnis qui credit in ipsum, non pereat.
Lapsus vero reparabilis,4 cum dicitur: Cum essemus mortui peccatis. Peccatum enim primi parentis erat causa nostrae mortis, per quem a statu innocentiae prolapsus fuit totum genus humanum, secundum quod scibitur ad Romanos quinto:5 Sicut per unum hominem peccatum in mundum intravit et per peccatum mors, ita et in omnes mors pertansiit, in quo omnes peccaverunt. Et quia in alio et per alium peccaverunt, ideo reparabiliter ceciderunt.6
Persona vero Reparatoris notatur per hoc quod dicitur: Convivificavit nos Christo. Nam Christus fuit, in quo facta fuit ista reconciliatio, sicut scribitur ad Colossenses primo:7 In ipso complacuit omnem plenitudinem inhabitare, et per eum reconciliare omnia in ipsum, pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius sive quae in caelis, sive quae in terris sunt.
Salus vero hominis reparati tangitur in hoc quod dicitur Cuius gratia estis salvati etc. Merito enim passionis Christi collata est efficacia Sacramentis, ut per ea infirmis detur gratia sanativa, secundum illud ad Titum tertio:8 secundum misericordiam suam salvos nos fecit per lavacrum regenerationis et renovationis Spiritus sancti, quem effudit in nobis abunde per Iesum Chrstum salvatorem nostrum.
De his quator simul habetur quinto9 ad Romanos in quodam verbo, ubi sic ait: Commendat autem Deus caritatem suam in nobis ecce auctor reparationis sed cum adhuc peccatores essemus ecce lapsus reparabilis Christus pro nobis mortuus est in quo persona notatur Reparatoris multo magis iustificati nunc per sanguinem ipsius, salvi erimus ab ira per ipsum ecce salus hominis reparati.
Secundum haec quator, quae in praedicta auctoritate describuntur, quatuor sunt libri Sententiarum. Nam in primo libro agitur de reparationis auctore, utpote de beata Trinitate. In secundo vero agitur de ipso10 reparabili, utpote de homine cadente a statu conditionis et innocentiae. In tertio agitur de persona Reparatoris, utpote de Christo, Deo et homine. In quarto vero agitur de hominis reparati salute, quae quidem consistit in expiatione culpae et amotione omnis miseriae.
Et sic patet, quomodo iste totalis liber11 versatur circa nostrae reparationis mysterium explican/dum
But God, who is rich in mercy, on accountof His exceeding charity, with which He has loved us, when we had died by sins, made us to live together with Christ, by whose grace you were saved.
This word is witten in the second1 [chapter of the Letter] to the Ephesians, in which there is introduced for us the mystery of our redemption, and through this [word] there is manifested for us the subject of the Book of the Sentances, and especially as much as regards the third part of it, in which there is explained the sacrament of our redemption worked by means of Christ. Moreover there can be noted in this word the four things pertaining to the reparation2 of the human race, of which the first is the Author of reparation; the second is the reparable fall; the third the person of the Repairer; but the forth and last the salvation of the repaired man.
The Author moreover of the reparation is denoted, when there is said: But God, who is rich in mercy etc. For He by His own free-flowing mercynot moved from some other directionarranged to repare the human race, just as is written in the third [chapter of the Gospel] of John:3 God so loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten son, that everyone who believed in Him, might not perish.
Indeed the repairable fall [is denoted],4 when there is said: Though we had died by sins. For the sin of [our] first parent was the cause of our death, through whom from the state of innocence the entire human race had fallen, according to what is written in the fifth5 [chapter of the Letter] to the Romans: Just as through one man sin entered into the world and through sin death, so also did death pass over into all, in whom all sinned. And because they sinned in another and though another, on that account they fell in a repairable manner.6
Indeed the person of the Repairer is denoted though this which is said: He made us to live together with Christ. For Christ was He, in whom there was wrought that reconciliation, just as is written in the first [chapter of the Letter] to the Colossians;7 He was thoroughly pleased that all fullness dwell in Him , and through Him to reconcile all things in Him, pacifying through the Blood of His Cross both those things which are in the heavens, and those which are on earth.
Indeed the salvation of the repaired man is touched upon in this which is said, By whose grace you have been saved etc. For deservedly the efficacy of the Sacrament has been gathered from the Passion of Christ, so that through it there is given to the infirm healing grace, according to that which [is said] in the third [chapter of the Letter] to Titus:8 according to His mercy He saved us through the Holy Spirit's laver of regeneration and renewal , whom He poured forth in us abundantly through Jesus Christ Our Savior.
From these four there is understood at the same time a fifth9 in that certain word [from the Letter] to the Romans, where [the Apostle] speaks thus: God entrusted His own charity to us behold the Author of reparation but when we were still sinners behold the repairable fall Christ died for us in which the person of the Repairer is denoted much more having been justified now through His Blood, shall we be absent [erimus ab ira] from wrath through Him behold the salavation of the repaired man.
According to these four, which are described in the aforesaid authority, there are four books of the Sentances. For in the first book there is dealt with the Author of reparation, in as much as [the book] concerns the Blessed Trinity. In the second indeed there is dealt with him10 [who is] repairable, in as much as it concerns man fallen from the state of his establishment and innocence. In the third there is dealt with the person of the Repairer, in as much as it concerns Christ, God and man. In the fourth there is dealt with the very salvation of the repaired man, which indeed consists in the expiation of fault and the removal of all misery.
And thus it is patent, in what manner this entire book11 is employed concerning the explanation of the mystery of our repairation;
1 Vers. 4. seq. Voci Christo Vulgata et cod.
K praefigunt in.
1 Verse 4 ff. The Vulgate and codex K read to live
explican/dum; specialiori tamen modo hoc spectat ad tertium librum, in quo manifestatur, qualiter vivificati sumus per Christum. Et hoc notavit Apostolus in verbo praedicto, cum dixit: Convivificavit nos Christo. Quod ideo dicit Apostolus, quia Deus vivificavit nos in Christo, et cum Christo, et per Christum, et secundum Christum.
Primo igitur Deus convivificavit nos in Christo, quia in persona eius mortalitatem nostram vitae sociavit, secundum illud Ioannis quinto:1 Sicut Pater habet vitam in semetipso, ita et Filio dedit habere vitam in semetipso. Si vitam igitur habet Filius in semetipso, dum sibi mortalitatem nostram assumsit, nos verae et immortali vitae sociavit, ac per hoc in semetipso convivificavit.
Convivificavit etiam cum Christo, dum ipse Christus, qui vita erat, inter mortales homines vixit, secundum illud quod dicitur in principio primae Canonicae Ioannis:2 Quod fuit ab initio, quod vidimus oculis nostris, quod perspeximus, et manus nostrae contrectaverunt de Verbo vitae; et vita manifestata est, et vidimus et testamur et annuntiamus vobis vitam aeternam; et sic, dum in terris visus est et cum hominibus conversatus est, Deus nos convivificavit cum Christo, dum vivere nos fecit cum ipso.
Convivificavit etiam nos per Christum, dum nos a morte eripuit per mortem ipsius, secundum illud primae Petri tertio:3 Christus semel pro peccatis nostris mortuus est, iustus pro iniustis, ut nos offerret Deo, mortificatus quidem carne, vivificatus autem spiritu. Dum ergo Christus vitam suam pro nobis posuit, Deus per ipsum genus humanum mortuum vivificavit.
Postremo secundum Christum nos vivificavit, dum ad eius exemplum nos per viam vitae direxit, iuxta illud Psalmi:4 Notas mihi fecisti vias vitae. Notas nobis fecit vias vitae, dum nobis fidem et spem et caritatem et dona gratiarum distribuit, et mandata adiuxit, in quibus ipse Christus ambulavit, et in quibus consistit via vitae, per quam Christus nos docuit ambulare. Deus igitur nos vivificavit secundum Christum, quia ad vitam dirigit imitatores ipsius.
De his quatuor simul habetur ad Philippenses secundo:5 Exinanivit semetipsum formam servi accipiens ecce primum, scilicet quod mortalitatem nostram vitae suae univit in similitudinem hominum factus et habitu inventus ut homo ecce secundum, videlicet quod cum hominibus ut6 homo vixit humiliavit semetipsum usque ad mortem ecce tertium, videlicet quod per mortem suam nos a morte liberavit propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum ecce quartum, videlicet quod post mortem multos habuit sequaces et imitatores credentes in eum.
Quoniam igitur in hoc libro, qui sic incipit Cum igitur venit plenitudo temporis etc. , intendit Magister determinare7 etc.
however in a more special manner this pertains to the third book, in which there is manifested, how we have been brought to life through Christ. And the Apostle denoted this in the aforesaid verse, when he said: He brought us to life together with Christ. Because on that account the Apostles says, that because God brought us to life in Christ, and with Christ, and through Christ, and according to Christ.
Therefore first God brought us to life together in Christ, because He associated our mortality of life in His person, according to that [which is spoken] in the fifth [chapter of the Gospel] of John:1 As the Father has life in himself, so also has He give to the Son to have life in Himself. If therefore the Son has life in Himself, while He assumed our mortality as His own, He has associated us with a true and immortal life, and by means of this He has brought us to life together in His very self.
He has also brought [us] to life together with Christ, while Christ himself, who was Life, lived among mortal men, according to that which is said in the beginning of the First Letter of John:2 That which was from the beginning, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have examined, and our hands have handled, [that is I speak] of the Word of life; and Life was manifested, and we have seen and testify and announce to you the Eternal Life; and thus, while He was seen unpon the earth and conversed with men, God brought us to life together with Christ, while He made us to life with Him.
He also brought us to life together through Christ, while He snatched us from death through His death, according to that [which is said] in the third [chapter] of the First [Letter] of Peter:3 Christ died one for our sins, the Just One for the unjust ones, so that He migh offer us to God, mortified indeed in the flesh, vivified however in the spirit. Therefore while Christ layed down His life for us, God vivified the dead human race through Him.
Lastly He brought us to life together according to Christ, while He directed us according to His exampe along the way of life, according to that [verse] of the Psalm:4 Make known to me the ways of life. He made known to us the ways of life, while He distributed faith and hope and charight and the gifts of graces, and imparted mandates, in which Christ Himself walked, and in which consist the way of life, through which Christ taught us to walk. Therefore God brought us to life according to Christ, because He directed His imitators to life.
Concerning these four there is had at the same time [that word] from the second [chatper of the Letter] to the Philippians:5 He emptied His very self, accepting the form of a slave behold the first, namely that He united our mortality to His own life being made to the likeness of men and being found in the condition [habitu] of a man behold the second, that is that with men He lived as6 a man He humbled His very self even unto death behold the third, that is that through His own death He liberated us from death on account of which even God has exalted Him behold the fourth, that is that after [His] death He had many followers and imitators [who] believe in Him.
Therefore since in this book, which begins thus, Therefore since He came in the fulness of time etc., the Master [of the Sentances] intends to delimit7 etc.
1 Vers. 26. Paulo inferius edd. omittunt verae
1 Verse 26. A little below this the edition omit
a true and. [ed. A little above this the Latin text Convivificavit
nos Christo is capable of signifiying each of the following meanings
brought forward by St. Bonaventure: in, with, through, according]