S. Bonaventurae Bagnoregis

H. R. E. Cardinalis & Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis

COLLATIONES DE SEPTEM DONIS SPIRITUS SANCTI

 

S. Bonaventure Bagnoregio

Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church & Doctor of the Church

CONFERENCES ON THE SEVEN GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

 

COLLATIO I

PRAEMITTITUR TRACTATIO DE GRATIA

SECUNDUM EIUS ORTUM, USUM ET FRUCTUM

CONFERENCE I

PRELIMINARY TRACT ON GRACE

ACCORDING TO ITS RISE, USE, AND FRUIT

1. Hortamur vos ne in vacuum gratiam Dei recipiatis 1. -- Diffusa est gratia in labiis tuis, propterea benedixit te Deus in aeternum 2. Verbum secundo propositum dirigitur ad Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, secundum quod apparet in Psalmo ex textu praecedenti et subsequenti. Praemittitur enim in Psalmo -- ubi scribuntur haec verba -- Speciosus forma prae filiis hominum 3; et subsequitur: Sedes tua, Deus, in saeculum saeculi 4 etc. Loquitur ergo de Christo, qui est benedictus, in quo benedicuntur omnes gentes terrae. In semine tuo benedicentur omnes gentes 5 , dictum est Abrahae; et quia Christus est Verbum, per quod omnia bendicuntur; et qui benedicitur de Deo Patre benedicitur de Christo: ideo omnia per Christum benedicuntur.

1. We urge [hortamur] you not to receive the grace of God in vain. 1. -- Grace is spread upon thy lips, on that account God has blest thee in eternity. 2. The word proposed secondly is directed to Our Lord Jesus Christ, according to what appears in the Psalm from the preceding and subsequent text. For it is first said [praemittiur] in the Psalm -- where these words are written -- An imposing [speciosus] form before the sons of men 3; and there follows [subsequitur]: Thy throne, God, unto age of age. 4 etc.. Therefore it speaks of Christ, who is blest, in whom all the nations [gentes] of the Earth are blest. In Thy seed shall all nations be blest 5, was said to Abraham; and because Christ is the Word, through which all things are blest; and [because] those who are blest from God the Father are blest from Christ; for that reason all things are blest through Christ.

2. Dicitur in Ecclesiaste: Verba oris sapientis gratia 6. Verum est quod scribitur in Ioanne: Lex per Moysen data est, gratia vero et veritas per Christum facta est 7. Ad salutem duo sunt necessaria, scilicet notitia veritatis et exercitatio virtutis. Notitia veritatis habetur per Legem, sed exercitatio virtutis habetur per gratiam. "Virtus est bona qualitas mentis, qua recte vivitur, qua nemo male utitur, quam Deus in nobis operatur". Lex se habet ad gratiam, sicut virtus apprehensiva ad motivam, et sicut instrumentum ad virtutem operativam. Esto, quod avis haberet aspectum ad videndum caelum et non haberet virtutem in alis, non posset volare nec ibi pertingere. Sic, quantumcumque glorietur Iudaeus in Lege, ex quo est sine gratia, nihil est. Artifex, quando habet instrumentum, per quod operatur, nisi habeat virtutem operativam in manibus, nihil boni potest facere. Iudaee perfide, Legem habes in manu, sed nisi habeas virtutem operativam, frustra putas, te Legem habere. Ideo per Legem nemo salvatur, nisi adsit gratia. Et sic patet, quod multo excellentior est gratia Dei quam ipsa Lex. -- Alias dixi vobis de lege decalogi, et modo dicam vobis de gratia; et magis necessaria est nobis gratia quam Lex; ad quam gratiam furctuose recipiendam hortaur nos mater Ecclesia et apostolus Paulus. Et in principio rogabimus Dominum, ut verba nostra gratiae deserviant, et intentio mentis nostrae, si gratiam habeat, corroboretur in verbis, ut possimus aliquid dicere, quod sit ad Dei laudem et salutem animarum nostrarum.

2. It is said in Ecclesiasticus: The words of the mouth of the wise man [are] grace 6. There is a word that is written in John: The Law has been given through Moses, but grace and truth have been wrought through Christ 7. For salvation two things are necessary, namely the knowing [notitia] of the truth and the exercising [exercitatio] of virtue. The knowing of the truth is had through the Law, but the exercising of virtue is had through grace. "Virtue is a good quality of the mind, by which one lives uprightly [recte], which no one uses badly, which God works in us". The Law is held [se habet] for grace, as apprehensive virtue is for motive, and as an instrument for operative virtue. Though it be [esto], that a bird have the power of sight [aspectum] to see the sky [caelum] and not have virtue in its wings, it cannot fly nor reach [pertingere] there. So, however much a Jew glories in the Law, from which one is without grace, he is nothing. The craftsman, when he has the instrument, by which he works, unless he has operative virtue in his hands, can make nothing good [nihil boni]. Perfidious Jew, you have the Law in your hand, but unless you have operative virtue, in vain do you think, that you have the Law. For that reason no one is saved through the Law, unless grace be there [adsit]. And so it is clear, that much more excellent is the grace of God than the Law itself. -- At another time [alias] I spoke to you of the Law of the Decalogue, and now [modo] I shall speak to you of grace; and more necessary is grace for us than the Law; to receive which grace fruitfully Mother Church and the Apostle Paul urge us. And in the beginning we shall beg the Lord, that our words may zealously serve grace, and the intention of our mind, if it has grace, be strengthened in words, to be able to say something, which is for the praise of God and the salvation of our souls.

3. Hortamur vos 8 etc. Apostolus Paulus in isto brevi verbo excitat nos ad divinam gratiam suscipiendam, ad susceptam custodiendam et ad gratiam susceptam et custoditam multiplicandam. Hortatur nos, ne in vacuum gratiam Dei accipiamus, sed fructuose eam recipiamus: ergo vult dicere, quod simus prompti ad gratiam Dei suscipiendam, custodiendam et multiplicandam. Ut autem ista exhortatio in nobis impleri possit, tria occurrunt nobis hic consideranda: primo, quis sit gratiae ortus; secundo, quis sit gratiae usus; et tertio, quis sit gratiae fructus. Nolo dicere nisi planiori modo, quo potero, ut quilibet capere possit.

3. We urge you 8 etc.. The Apostle Paul in this brief word rouses us up to take up [ad suscipiendum] divine grace, to guard what has been taken up, and to multiply the grace taken up and guarded. He urges us, not to accept the grace of God in vain, but to receive it fruitfully; therefore he wants to say, that we are to be [simus] prompt to take up, guard, and multiply the grace of God. Moreover that this exhortation of his be able to be fulfilled in us, three things occur here for us to consider: first, what is the rise [ortus] of grace; second, what is the use of grace; and third, what is the fruit of grace. I do not want to speak except in the plainer manner, by which I am able, so that everyone can understand.

4. Primo dico: si consideremus gratiae ortum, quaero, quid sit originale principium gratiae. Certum est, quod gratia est datum optimum et donum perfectum, desursum descendens a Patre luminum 9 . Facio argumentum ex Canonica Iacobi. Pono maiorem universalem affirmativam sic: Omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum desursum est, descendens a Patre luminum, apud quem non est transmutatio nec vicissitudinis obumbratio 10 ; sed gratia, ut ostendam in sequentibus, est datum optimum et donum perfectum -- totum, quod dicam, volo ordinare ad probandum istam assumptam -- sed si gratia est datum optimum et donum perfectum: ergo est desursum descendens a Patre luminum.

4. First I say: if we consider the rise of grace, I ask, what is the original principle of grace. It is certain, that grace is the best given and the perfect gift, descending from above from the Father of lights 9 . I make this argument from the Canonical [Letter] of James. I posit the major, affirmative universal thus: Every best given and every perfect gift is from above, descending from the Father of lights, among whom there is no transmutation nor overshadowing of alternation [vicissitudinis] 10 ; but grace, as I will show in the following [points], is the best given and the perfect gift -- the whole of what I say, I want to order towards proving this assumption -- but if grace is the best given and the perfect gift: therefore it is descending from above from the Father of lights.

5. Sed qua via descendit gratia in homines? Quaerit Iob dicens: Per quam viam spargitur lux, et dividitur aestus super terram? 11 Respondeo et dico, quod gratia descendit super mentes rationales per Verbum incarnatum, per Verbum crucifixum et per Verbum inspiratum. -- Probatio. Dicitur in Canonica Iacobi: Voluntarie genuit nos Verbo veritatis, ut simus initium aliquod creaturae eius 13 . Certum est quod originale principium, quod est Deus, quando creavit homninem ad imaginem et similitudinem suam in statu innocentiae, ita propinquum creavit illum sibi, ut per Verbum increatum informabilis esset homo ad gratiam. Postquam vero homo lapsus est per peccatum, providit divina sapientia modum condescensionis per Verbum incarnatum, per quod homo adaptaretur ad gratiam. Et quia istud factum est in utero Virginis gloriosae, ideo dictum est ei: Ave, gratia plena, Dominus tecum 15 . -- Sic ergo prima facie occurrit nobis Pater misericordiarum et mater misericordiarum et Filius, qui est lux misericordiarum. Sic patet prima originatio gratiae in nobis, quae fit per Verbum incarnatum. O infelicissimi! qui ignorant istud initium gratiam habere non possunt.

5. But by which way does grace descend into men? Job asks (this) saying: Through which way is light scattered, and heat distributed over the earth? 11 I respond and say, that grace descends over rational minds through the Incarnate Word, through the Crucified Word, and through the Inspired Word. -- Proof. It is said in the Canonical [Letter] of James: He has voluntarily begotten us in the Word of truth, so that we be a certain beginning of His creation [creaturae].13. It is certain that the original Principle, which is God, when He created man in accord with [ad] His image and similitude in the state of innocence, did so near create him to Himself, that through the Uncreated Word man was informable in accord with [ad] grace. But after man fell through sin, the Divine Wisdom provided a manner of condescension through the Incarnate Word, through which man was to be adapted to grace. And because that was done in the womb of the glorious Virgin, for that reason it was said to Her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee 15 . -- Thus, therefore, prima facie there occurs to us the Father of mercies and the Mother of mercies and the Son, who is the Light of mercies. Thus is clear the first origination of grace in us, which happens [fit] through the Incarnate Word. O most unhappy ones! who do not know how they can have that beginning of grace.

6. Secundo, descendit gratia in nos per Verbum crucifixum. Non solum eramus inepti ad gratiam suscipiendam propter ignorantiam divinorum praeceptorum, immo etiam propter infirmitatem nostram et impotentiam et concupiscentiam terrenorum: ideo voluit Dominus ponere fulcimenta. Ut sanaret languores nostros 16 , descendit in nos per Verbum crucifixum. Unde Apostolus ad Ephesios: Deus, qui dives est in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem suam, qua dilexit nos; cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos Christo, cuius gratia salvati estis 17 . Nos sumus vivificati Christo per Christum, quia Christus de morte triumphavit; unde non potuit ipsum mors absorbere, immo fons vitae absorbuit mortem, secundum quod dictum est: Ero mors tua, o mors 18 . Aliter sanari et salvari non potuimus. Unde Apostolus ad Galatas: Non abiicio gratiam Dei; si enim per Legem iustitia, ergo gratis Christus mortuus est 19 ; mortuus autem est Christus, ut mortuos resuscitaret ad susceptionem vitae et gratiae: ergo influitur nobis gratia per Verbum incarnatum et per Verbum crucifixum. -- Et beata Virgo suscepit istud Verbum plenum gratia 20 ; et egressus est fluvius gratiarum de eius latere, qui habet efficaciam nos sanandi.

6. Second, grace descends into us through the Crucified Word. We were not only inept to take up grace on account of (our) ignorance of the divine precepts, yes indeed, also on account of our infirmity and impotence and concupiscence for earthly things [terrenorum]: for that reason the Lord wanted to prop (us up) [ponere fulcimenta]. To heal our languors 16 , He descended into us through the Crucified Word. Whence the Apostle to the Ephesians: God, who is rich in mercy, on account of His exceeding charity, with which He has loved [dilexit] us; when we had died with sins, vivified us together [convivificavit] with Christ, by whose grace we have been saved 17. We have been vivified by Christ through Christ, because Christ has triumphed from death; whence death could not absorb Him, rather the Fount of life absorbed death, according to that which is written: I will be thy death, O Death! 18 . Otherwise we could not be healed and saved. Whence the Apostle to the Galatians: I do not throw away the grace of God; for if justice (is) through the Law, therefore Christ died without recompense [gratis]19; However Christ has died, to resuscitate the dead for the taking up [ad susceptionem] of life and grace; therefore grace is flowed into [influitur] us through the Incarnate Word and through the Crucified Word. -- And the Blessed Virgin took up that Word (that is) full of grace 20; and the stream [fluvius] of graces has come forth [egressus est] from the side of Him, who has the efficacy to heal us.

7. Tertio oritur nobis gratia per Verbum inspiratum. Quantumcumque Deus misit Filium suum 21 in carnem, nisi credas ipsum crucifixum, non habebis gratiam. Unde Apostolus ad Titum: Non ex operibus iustitiae, quae fecimus nos, sed secundum misericordiam suam salvos nos fecit per lavacrum regenerationis et renovationis Spiritus sancti, quem effudit abunde in nos per Iesum Christum, Salvatorem nostrum 22. Carissimi! Spiritus sanctus est, qui est dator gratiarum et amor procedens a Patre et Filio. Quidquid igitur agat Pater et patiatur Filius, sine Spiritu sancto nihil est. Ipse enim iungit nos Patri et Filio. Unde Apostolus: Gratia Domini nostri Iesu Christi, quantum ad secundum, et caritas Dei, quantum ad primum, et communicatio Spiritus sancti, quantum ad tertium, sit cum omnibus vobis. Amen 23.

7. Third, grace rises in us through the Inspired Word. However much God has sent His Son 21 into flesh, unless you believe that He was crucified, you will not have grace. Whence the Apostle to Titus: Not out of the works of justice, which we have done, but according to His mercy has He saved us through the laver of regeneration and the renovation of the Holy Spirit, whom He poured forth abundantly into us through Jesus Christ, Our Savior 22. Dear ones! It is the Holy Spirit, who is the giver of graces and the Love [amor] proceeding from the Father and the Son. Whatever therefore the Father does and the Son suffers, it is nothing without the Holy Spirit. For He joins us to the Father and the Son. Whence the Apostle: The grace of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in regard [quantum] to the Second (Person), and the charity of God, in regard to the First, and the communication of the Holy Spirit, in regard to the Third, be with all of you. Amen 23.

8. Igitur, si vis habere amorem Filii et originalis Principii et Doni Spiritus sancti, dispone te ad gratiam. Unde igitur oritur gratia ? Dico, quod oritur a Patre luminum per Verbum incarnatum, per Verbum crucifixum et per Verbum inspiratum. Nobilis influentia, quae a Deo incarnato habet originem! Multum bene deberet custodiri ista gratia; sed perdis eam per peccatum. Quomodo ausus esses introducere in domum tuam meretricem, quae totum asportaret quidquid haberes? Diligis res temporales; multo plus deberes diligere gratiam. Cum quis dignus est vita aeterna, per peccatum facit se dignum morte aeterna. Talis multum debet puniri. Unde Apostolus ad Hebraeos: Irritam quis faciens Legem Moysi sine ulla misericordia duobus aut tribus testibus moritur. Quanto magis putatis deteriora mereri supplicia, qui Filium Dei conculcaverit et sanguinem testamenti pollutum duxerit, in quo sanctificatus est, et Spiritui gratiae contumeliam fecerit? 25 . Coluber effundens venenum occidit, ita peccatum occidit vitam gratiae. -- Patet modo, quis sit gratiae ortus.

8. Therefore, if you want to have the love [amorem] of the Son and of the original Principle and of the Gift, the Holy Spirit, dispose yourself to grace. Whence therefore does grace rise? I say, that it rises from the Father of lights through the Incarnate Word, through the Crucified Word and through the Inspired Word. Noble influence, which has its origin from God incarnate! Much better ought that grace be guarded; but you lose it through sin. In what manner have you dared to introduce into your house a prostitute, who carries off all of what [totum quidquid] you have? You love [diliges] temporal things; much more ought you love grace. Since he who is worthy of eternal life, through sin makes himself worthy of eternal death. Such a one ought to be punished much. Whence the Apostle to the Hebrews: He who makes void [irritam faciens] the Law of Moses dies without any mercy on the testimony [testibus] of two or three. How much more do you think one merits worse punishments [supplicia], who tramples upon the Son of God and reckons [duxerit] polluted the Blood of the Testament, in which he was sanctified, and who speaks contumely [contumeliam fecerit] against the Spirit of grace? 25 . A serpent pouring forth venom kills, thus sin kills the life of grace. -- Now it is clear, what is the rise of grace.

9. Videamus, quis sit gratiae usus. Intelligere debetis, quod usus gratiae est ad hoc, quod nos ducat in profectum; ad hoc autem requiritur, quod usus gratiae sit fidelis respectu Dei, virilis in se et liberalis in proximum. -- Primo, dico, debet usus gratiae esse fidelis respectu Dei. Unde Apostolus: Cum autem complacuit ei qui me segregavit ex utero matris meae et vocavit per gratiam suam, continuo non acquievi carni et sanguini 26. Fidelis est qui donum, quod accipit pro alio, non diminuit. Sed quando quaeris aliquid principalius Deo, non es fidelis. Ideo dicit Apostolus: Non acquievi carni et sanguini, id est, non quaesivi carnalem gloriam, sed solum divinam. Sapientes in perspectiva dicunt, quod si radius perpendiculariter cadat super corpus tersum et politum; necesse est, quod per eandum viam repercutiatur. Influxus gratiae est sicut radius perpendicularis; dico de gratia gratum faciente, quia gratia gratis data est sicut radius incidentiae; necesse est igitur, quod qui gratiam Dei vere suscipit, quod gloriam Deo reddat. Unde si ad gloriam tuam praedicas, nihil melius est tibi. Super illud Ecclesiastae: Ad locum, unde exeunt flumina revertuntur 27 ; dicit Bernardus, quod "origo fontium mare est, virtutum et scientiarum origo est Christus". Dicit igitur: Ad locum, unde exeunt flumina, scilicet gratiarum, revertuntur, ut iterum fluant 28. Sicut enim fons non habet durationem, nisi habeat continuam coniunctionem cum sua origine, nec etiam lux; sic gratia Spiritus sancti non potest vigere in anima nisi per reversionem eius in ipsius originale principium.

9. Let us see, what the use of grace is. You ought to understand [intelligere], that the use of grace is for this, that it leads us in making progress [in profectum]; moreover for this it is required, that the use of grace be faithful in respect to God, virile in itself and liberal unto one's neighbor. -- First, I say, the use of grace ought to be faithful in respect to God. Whence the Apostle: Since it thoroughly pleased Him who set me apart from the womb of my mother and called me through His grace . . I immediately did not take comfort [acquievi] in flesh or blood 26. He is faithful who does not diminish the gift, which He accepted on behalf of another. But when you seek something more principally [principalius] than God, you are not faithful. For that reason the Apostle says: I did not take comfort in flesh or blood, that is, "I did not seek carnal glory, but only divine." Those wise in optics [perspectiva] say, that if a ray (of light) falls perpendicularly upon a clean and polished body; it is necessary, that it be reflected by the same angle [per eandum viam]. The influx of grace is as a perpendicular ray; I speak of grace which makes one pleasing [gratia gratum faciente], because grace freely given [gratia gratis data] is as an incident ray; it is necessary therefore, that he who truly takes up the grace of God, render God the glory. Whence if you preach for your own glory, there is nothing better for you (to expect). Upon this Ecclesiastes: To the place, whence the rivers go forth, they return 27; (St. Bernard) says, that "the origin of springs is the sea, the origin of virtues and sciences [scientiarum] is Christ". Therefore he says To the place, whence the rivers go forth, that is of graces, they return, to flow again 28. For as the spring does not have length [durationem], unless it has a continuous conjunction with its origin, so also light; thus the grace of the Holy Spirit cannot grow [vigere] in the soul unless through its reversion to is own original Principle.

10. Istam reversionem et coniunctionem servat humilitas, et dissolvit superbia. Unde in Canonica Iacobi: Deus superbis resistit, humilibus autem dat gratiam 29. Et quae est ratio? Quis est humilis? Certe, qui omnia bona quae habet, attribuit suo originali principio; sed superbus attribuit omnia sibi ipsi. Humilis continuatur cum sua origine, sed superbus discontinuatur et quasi dicit: hoc non accepi a te. Et ideo lucifer factus est obscurus, quia recessit a suo originali principio; sed Christus reduxit se in suum originale principium per humilitatem, et ideo clarus fuit. Propter hoc dicitur in Ecclesiastico: Quanto magnus es, humilia te in omnibus 30. Es archiepiscopus vel episcopus; vis invenire gratiam? Humilia te. Aliter sumus latrones, nisi nos humiliamus. Si rex ditasset aliquem, et ille non vellet recognoscere, se recepisse bona ab ipso; esset multum infidelis et deberet lapidari. Videmus aliquos exaltatos per Deum, qui tamen erigunt se contra Deum, dicentes: Manus nostra excelsa, et Deus non fecit haec 31. Tales et terram viventium perdunt et gratiam Spiritus sancti.

10. That reversion and conjunction protects [servat] humility, and dissolves pride. Whence in the Canonical (Letter) of James: God resists the proud, but He gives grace to the humble 29. And what is the reason? Who is humble? Certainly, he who of all the good things which he has, attributes them to their original Principle; but the proud man attributes all his own to himself. The humble man is in continuity [continuatur] with his origin, but the proud is in discontinuity and (is) as one who says: "this I have not accepted from Thee." And for that reason Lucifer became darkened [obscurus], because he receded from his original Principle; but Christ leads Himself back into His own original Principle through humility, and for that reason He was bright [clarus]. On account of this it is said in Ecclesiasticus: As much as you are great, humble yourself in all things 30. Are you an archbishop or bishop; do you want to find grace? Humble yourself. Otherwise we are thieves, if we do not humble ourselves. If a king had enriched anyone, and he did not want to recognize that he had received goods from the former; he would be very unfaithful and ought to be stoned. We see others exalted by God, who nevertheless set themselves up against God, saying: Our exalted hand, and not God, has wrought these things 31. Such men loose both the land of the living and the grace of the Holy Spirit.

11. Secunda differentia usus gratiae est, quod debet esse virilis in se. Unde Apostolus ad Hebraeos: Optimum est gratia stabilire cor 32, non dicit ventrem. Aliis temporibus laborastis ad stabiliendum corpora vestra. Qui vult habere brachia fortia, oportet, quod exerceat se ad opera fortia. Similiter, qui vult habere gratiam stabilientem, oportet, quod exerceat se in operibus virtutum. Apostolus, quando dixit: Gratia Dei sum id quod sum 33 ; subdit: Abundantius omnibus laboravi 35 . Nobile exemplum est, quod aliqui cognoscant virtutem suam et non superbiant de ea. Quam virtuosa agunt aliqui cum gratia Spiritus sancti! -- Samson capillatus fortissimus fuit; ibat fortitudo eius super naturam34. Therefore you praise yourself, Apostle? No; whence he added further: Not I, but the grace of God with me 36. Ergo laudas te, Apostole? Non; unde subdit: Non ego, sed gratia Dei mecum 35 . Nobile exemplum est, quod aliqui cognoscant virtutem suam et non superbiant de ea. Quam virtuosa agunt aliqui cum gratia Spiritus sancti! -- Samson capillatus fortissimus fuit; ibat fortitudo eius super naturam36. Et quare erat fortitudo eius in septem capillis? Dico, quod septem capillis significatur septiformis gratia Spiritus sancti, per quem roboratur fortitudo eius37. Sed quando accubuit in sinum Dalilae et capillos non habebat, factus est in viribus sicut ceteri homines. Detis mihi unum sine gratia, qui possit sustinere quod beatus Laurentius sustinuit. Nihil enim potest homo facere sine gratia; et nihil est ita durum, quod homo non possit sustinere cum gratia. Unde Apostolus: Omnia possum in eo qui me confortat 38.

11. The second difference, the use of grace, is that it ought to be virile in itself. Whence the Apostle to the Hebrews: It is best that grace stabilize [stabilire] the heart 32, he did not say "the belly". In other seasons you have labored to stabilize your hearts. It is proper that he who wants to have strong arms exercise himself by [ad] strong works. Similarly, it is proper that he who wants to have stabilizing grace, exercise himself in works of virtue. The Apostle, when he said: By the grace of God, I am what I am 33; added further [subdit]: I have labored more abundantly than all 34. Therefore you praise yourself, Apostle? No; whence he added further: Not I, but the grace of God with me 35. It is a noble example [exemplum], that some are acquainted with [cognoscant] their own virtue and are not proud from it. How virtuously do some act with the grace of the Holy Spirit! -- Sampson with his hair [capillatus] was the strongest man; his fortitude went above nature 36. And why was his fortitude in his seven hairs? I say, that the seven hairs signified the septiform grace of the Holy Spirit, through which his fortitude was strengthened [roboratur] 37. But when he reclined in the lap of Delilah and had not his hair, he became in strength [in viribus] as all other men. Give me one without grace, who can sustain what blessed Lawrence sustained! For a man can do nothing without grace; and nothing is so hard [durum], that a man cannot sustain with grace. Whence the Apostle: I can (do) all things in Him who strengthens me together with (Himself) [confortat] 38.

12. Tertio debet esse usus gratiae liberalis in proximum. Unde in Matthaeo: Gratis accepistis, gratis date 39. O sol, quare non vendis lucem tuam? Et tu, Sequana, quare non vendis guttas aquae? Certe, quia gratis accepit, ideo gratis communicat. Solus miser homo est, qui vendit gratiam sibi collatam. Unde intravit primo ista venditio? Certe a Simone mago, cui dixit apostolus Petrus: Pecunia tua tecum sit in perditionem 40 . Vertex Apostolorum, beatus Petrus dicit: Unusquisque accepit gratiam, in alterutrum ministrantes, sicut boni dispensatores multiformis gratiae Dei 41. Dionysius determinat nobis usum gratiae in Angelica hierarchia et caelesti et dicit, quod si superiores angeli continerent se et non vellent influere in inferiores angelos, tunc ipsi clauderent sibi viam influentiae Dei. Si bonum, quod habes a Deo, denegas alii et vides pauperem in vita aut in merito; non es dignus vita aeterna, et vita tua est pessima et porcina42. -- Difficile est, quod homo sit fidelis, virilis et liberalis; ideo multi errant circa usum gratiae.

12. Third, the use of grace ought to be liberal unto one's neighbor. Whence in Matthew: Freely you have accepted, freely give 39. O Sun, why do you not sell your light? And you, O Seine, why do you not sell drops of water? Certainly, because it has accepted freely, it for that reason communicates freely. Man alone is wretched, who sells the grace collected by himself. Whence has entered that first sale [venditio]? Certainly from Simon the wizard, to whom the Apostle Peter said: May your money be with you unto perdition! 40. The peak of the Apostles, blessed Peter said: Whichever one has accepted grace, ministering unto the other, as good dispensers of the manifold grace of God 41. Dionysius (the Areopagite) determines for us the use of grace in The Angelic Hierarchy and The Celestial Hierarchy and he says, that if the superior angels contain themselves and do not want to influence [influere in] the inferior angels, then they themselves close their own way to the influence of God. If the good, which you have from God, you deny to others and you see one poor in life or in merit; you are not worthy of eternal life, and your life is the worst and like a swine [porcina] 42. -- It is difficult for a man to be faithful, virile and liberal; for that reason many err about the use of grace.

13. Sed quis est fructus omnium istorum? Qui plantat vineam plantat eam propter fructum. Triplex autem est fructus gratiae, qui numquam potest reperiri, nisi in eo qui est in gratia. Primus est remissio culpae, secundus est plenitudo iustitiae, et tertius est perpetuatio vitae beatae.

13. But what is the fruit of all these things? He who plants a vine plants it on account of its fruit. Moreover threefold is the fruit of grace, which one can never discover, except in him who is in grace. The first is the remission of fault [culpae], the second is the fullness of justice, and the third is the perpetuation of blessed life.

14. Primus, dico, fructus gratiae est remissio culpae. Unde Apostolus ad Romanos: Iustificati per fidem, pacem habeamus ad Deum per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, per quem et habemus accessum per fidem in gratiam istam, in qua stamus et gloriamur in spe gloriae filiorum Dei 43. Sicut vult Philosophus, non mutatur quis de vitiositate ad virtutes nisi per assuefactionem ad contrarium habitum; ita non remittetur culpa in aeternum nisi per gratiam. Potestne avarus in liberalitatem devenire nisi per exercitium liberalitais? Philosophus considerat vitium, in quantum dicit deordinationem quandam; quando habeo notitiam de Deo, iudico de peccato, quod est offensa Dei; nam per privationem legis Deum inhonoras 44; unde necesse est quod subiaceas vindictae Dei. Qui inordinatus est in culpa, necesse est, quod subiaceat poenae. -- Peccatum subiacet vindictae divinae; oportet igitur, quod poena sit aeterna, quia offensa est infinita. Tanta enim est offensa, quantus est ille qui offenditur; sed Deus est immensus, et maiestas est infinita: ergo et offensa est infinita: ergo et poena est infinita, non intensive, sed processive; quia impossibile est, virtutem creatam activam infinitam esse. Necesse set igitur, quod virtus aeterna operetur; sed Deus infinitus est; ergo si ipse mutet animam, oportet, quod hoc fiat per aliquam influentiam gratiae. Item, gehenna non dimittitur nisi per gratiam. Videte, igitur, quomodo gratia liberat a servitute peccati et diaboli45.

14. The first fruit, I say, of grace is the remission of fault. Whence the Apostle to the Romans: Justified through faith, we have peace towards God through Our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we also have access through faith in that grace (of His), in which we stand and glory in the hope of the glory of the sons of God 43. As the Philosopher would have it [vult], that no one be changed from viciousness [vitiositate] to virtues except through being accustomed [per assuefactionem] to the contrary habit; so fault is not remitted in eternity except through grace. Can the greedy man come to [devinire] liberality except through the exercise of liberality? The Philosopher considers vice, in as much as he calls it a certain disordering [disordinationem]; when God is known to me [habeo notitiam de Deo], I judge of sin, that it is offensive to God; for through the privation of the law you do not honor [inhonoras] God 44; whence it is necessary that you be subject to the vengeance [vindictae] of God. It is necessary, that he who has not honored out of fault [in culpa], be subject to punishment [poenae]. -- Sin is subject to the vengeance of God; therefore it is proper, that punishment be eternal, because the offense is infinite. For the offense is as great, as He who is offended; but God is immense, and (His) majesty is infinite; therefore also is the offense infinite; therefore also the punishment is infinite, not in intensity [intensive], but in duration [processive]; because it is impossible that, created, active virtue be infinite. Therefore it is necessary, that eternal virtue be at work [operetur]; but God is infinite; therefore if He changes the soul, it is proper, that this be done through some influence of grace. Likewise, (a sin meriting) Gehenna is not forgiven [dimittitur] except through grace. See, therefore, in what manner grace frees from the servitude of sin and of the devil 45.

15. Secundus fructus gratiae est plenitudo iustitiae, quae consistit in hoc, quod homo sit iustus in se et quoad Deum et quoad proximum, scilicet quod homo vitet malum et operetur bonum. Et quomodo? Dicit Apostolus ad Titum: Apparuit gratia Dei Salvatoris nostri omnibus hominibus, erudiens nos, ut abnegantes impietatem et saecularia desideria, sobrie, iuste et pie vivamus in hoc saeculo, exspectantes beatem spem et adventum gloriae magni Dei 47. -- Apparuit gratia Dei nostri et Iesu Christi etc. Haec est gratia, quae omnia mala expellit et omnia bona tribuit: ergo in gratia est plenitudo iustitiae. Unde in Ecclesiastico dicit Sapientia increata: Ego mater pulcrae dilectionis et timoris et agnitionis et sanctae spei; in me omnis gratia viae et veritatis; in me omnis spes vitae et virtutis; transite ad me omnes, qui concupiscitis me, et a generationibus meis adimplemini 47. Vultis esse pleni gratia et virtute? Transite ad me, scilicet ad Christum. Et qualiter? Non possumus hoc facere, nisi supra nos elevamur; sed aliqua impediunt nos, ne elevemur supra nos: ideo oportet, quod insurgamus contra illa quae nos impediunt. In ista plenitudine gratiae non collocatur, nisi qui insurgat contra se et elevetur supra se et diligat Deum super omnia et inimicum sicut se ipsum48 ; quia nomine proximi omnis homo intelligitur. Plena igitur iustitia est diligere Deum super omnia, et hoc est diligere omnem hominem, ergo et domesticum et inimicum. Sed quid faciet, quod homo elevetur contra se et supra se? Certe gratia; dico, gratia viae et veritatis. Difficile est alicui, quod diligat inimicum, nisi per gratiam. Lapis non potest calefacere per se; sed si ponatur iuxta fornacem ardentem, potest postea calefacere. Si diligitis qui vos diligunt, quae gratia? 49. Diligere amicum tantum non est virtus gratiae.

15. The second fruit of grace is the fullness of justice, which consists in this, that man be just in himself both as regards [quoad] God and neighbor, that is that man avoids evil and works good. And in what manner? The Apostle says to Titus: The grace of God Our Savior has appeared to all men, instructing [erudiens] us, to live in this age soberly, justly, and piously, renouncing [abnegantes] impiety and secular desires, awaiting the blessed hope and advent of the glory of the Great God 46. -- The grace of Our God and of Jesus Christ has appeared etc.. This is the grace, which expels all evils and grants [tribuit] all goods; therefore in grace is the fullness of justice. Whence in Ecclesiasticus Uncreated Wisdom says: I (am) the mother of beautiful love [dilectionis] and of fear and of acknowledgement [agnitionis] and of holy hope; in Me (there is) every grace of way and of truth; in Me every hope of life and of truth; pass over to me all you, who desire [concupisicitis] Me, and be filled up by what I have brought forth [a generationibus meis] 47. Do you want to be full of grace and virtue? Passover to me, that is, to Christ. And how? We cannot do this, unless we be raised over ourselves; but some things impede us, lest we be raised over ourselves; for that reason it is proper, that we rise up [insurgamus] against those things which impede us. In that fullness of grace one is not placed [collocatur], unless one rises up against oneself and is raised above oneself and loves [diligat] God above all things and (his) enemy as his very self 48; because by the name of neighbor every man is understood. Therefore full justice is to love [diligere] God above all things, and this is to love every man, therefore both family member [domesticum] and enemy. But what brings it about [faciet], that a man is raised against himself and above himself? Grace, certainly; I say, the grace of way and of truth. It is difficult for anyone, to love one's enemy, except through grace. A stone cannot be warmed by itself [per se]; but if it is placed near a burning furnace [fornacem], one can then [postea] warm it. If you love those who love you, what thanks [gratia] (is there in that)? 49 To love only your friend is not the virtue of grace.

16. Tertius fructus gratiae est assecutio beatitudinis aeternae. Unde Apostolus ad Romanos: Stipendia peccati mors; gratia autem Dei vita aeterna 50 . Habes plantationem vitae et mortis. Gratia Dei est vita aeterna. Quid autem est peccatum? Certe nihil aliud nisi arbor mortis. Hic est arbor mortis, et hic est arbor vitae; pone te in horto, ubi est lignum vitae 51 . Stultus esset qui plantaret arborem mortis; si plantasti arborem, in qua deberes suspendi, stultus esses. Mali igitur illam arborem peccati plantant. -- Est igitur triplex fructus gratiae: primus est remissio culpae, secundus est plenitudo iustitiae, et tertius est assecutio beatitudinis aeternae.

16. The third fruit of grace is the attainment [assecutio] of eternal beatitude. Whence the Apostle to the Romans: The stipend of sin (is) death; however the grace of God (is) eternal life 50. You have the planting ground [plantationem] for life and death. The grace of God is eternal life. What however is sin? Certainly nothing other but the tree of death. Here is the tree of death, and here the tree of life; place yourself in the garden, where the Tree of life is 51. One would be stupid who would plant a tree of death; if you have planted the tree, upon which you ought to be hung, you were stupid. Therefore evil men plant that tree of sin. -- Therefore threefold is the fruit of grace: the first is the remission of fault, the second is the fullness of justice, and the third is the attainment of eternal beatitude.

17. Et secundum hoc est triplex gratia, scilicet gratia curans, gratia corroborans et gratia consummans. -- Gratia curans datur in septem sacramentis contra septemplicem morbum; in iustis custoditur per septem exercitia iustitiae, de quibus agitur in septem Psalmis poenitentialibus. Et non sine ratione dicuntur illi septem Psalmi poenitentiales et non alii, nec mutari possunt nec multiplicari. Item, perficitur gratia curans in septem operibus misericordiae52. -- Gratia vero corroborans consistit in duobus. Aut enim se habet per modum rectificantis, et sic consistit in septem virtutibus; aut se habet per modum expedientis, et sic consistit in septem donis Spiritus sancti. -- Gratia vero consummans consistit in duobus septenariis, scilicet gratia consummans in via in septem beatitudinibus, quae tanguntur in Evangelio, cum dicitur: Beati pauperes, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum 53 etc.; sed gratia consummans patriae in septem dotibus ipsius animae, quae sunt visio, fruitio et tentio. Prima respondet fidei; secunda, spei; et tertia respondet caritati. Consistit etiam in quatuor dotibus corporis, quae in corpus redundant ex beatitudine animae et sunt claritas, subtilitas, agibilitas et impassibilitas; quae respondent quatuor virtutibus cardinalibus.

 

17. And according to this grace is threefold, that is curing grace [gratia curans], strengthening grace [gratia corroborans] and consummating grace [gratia consummans]. -- Curing grace is given in the seven Sacraments against the sevenfold disease [morbum]; in the just it is guarded through the seven exercises of justice, which are dealt with in the seven penetential Psalms. And not without reason are these said to be the seven penetential Psalms and not others, and that they cannot be changed nor multiplied. Likewise, curing grace is perfected in the seven works of mercy. 52 -- But strengthening grace consists in two things. For either it is considered [se habere] in the manner [per modum] of one rectifying, and so consists in the seven virtues; or it is considered in the manner of one expediting, and so consists in the seven gifts of the Holy Spriit. -- But consummating grace consists in two septenaries [duobus septenariis], that is grace (which) consummates on the way, in the seven beatitudes, which are touched upon in the Gospel, when it is said: Blessed (are) the poor, since theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven 53 etc.; but consummating grace (consists) in seven dowries of the fatherland to the soul itself, which (dowries) are seeing [visio], enjoyment [fruitio], and holding [tentio]. The first responds to faith; the second, to hope; and the third to charity. It also consists in four dowries to the body, which redound unto the body from the beatitude of the soul and they are clarity, subtlety, agility [agibilitas] and impassibility; which respond to the four cardinal virtues.

18. Et sic sunt septem septenarii. Dicere de septem sacramentis, de septem exercitiis iustitiae et de septem operibus misericordiae esset nimis longum; dicere etiam de septem beatitudinibus et de septem dotibus ad praesens esset nimis arduum. Et ideo in medio proponimus nos tenere et dicere de septem donis Spiritus sancti, quae sunt donum sapientiae et intellectus, donum consilii et fortitudinis, donum scientiae et pietatis et donum timoris Domini. Et procedemus non eo modo, quo procedit Isaias54 , sed incipiemus ab ultimo dono, scilicet a dono timoris Domini; et rogabimus Dominum, quod det nobis dona Spiritus sancti, qui cum Patre et Filio vivit et regnat etc.

18. And thus are the seven septenaries. To speak of the seven Sacraments, of the seven exercises of justice and of the seven works of mercy would be exceedingly long; to speak also of the seven beatitudes and of the seven dowries would be exceedingly arduous at the present [ad praesens]. And for that reason we propose in the middle to hold and speak of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, which are the gift of wisdom and understanding, the gift of counsel and fortitude, the gift of knowledge [scientiae] and piety and the gift of the fear of the Lord. And let us proceed not in that manner, by which Isaiah proceeded 54, but let us begin from the last gift, that is from the fear of the Lord; and let us beg the Lord, that He grant us the gifts of the Holy Spirit, who with the Father and the Son lives and reigns . . .

1 . 2 Co 6, 1.
2 . Ps 44, 3.
3 . Ps 44, 3.
4 . Ps 44, 7.
5 . Gen 26, 4.
6 . Eccle 10, 12.
7 . Io 1, 17.
8 . 2 Co 6, 1.
9 . Iac 1, 17.
10 . Iac 1, 17.
11 . Iob
12 . Iac 1, 18.
13 . Io 1, 16.
14 . Lc 1, 28.
15 . Heb 4, 16.
16 . Cf. Is 53, 4.
17 . Eph 2, 4-5.
18 . Os 13, 14.
19 . Gal 2, 21.
20 . Io 1, 14.
21 . Gal 4, 4.
22 . Tit 3, 5-6.
23 . 2 Co 13, 13.
24 . Heb 10, 28-29.
25 . Eccli 21, 2.
26 . Gal 1, 15-16. Textus plenus est: Cum autem complacuit ei qui me segregavit ex utero matris meae et vocavit per gratiam suam, ut revelaret Filium suum in me, ut evangelizarem illum in Gentibus: continuo non acquievi carni et sanguini.
27 . Eccle 1, 7.
28 . Eccle 1, 7.
29 . Iac 4, 6.
30 . Eccli 3, 20.
31 . Deut 32, 27.
32 . Heb 13, 9.
33 . 1 Co 15, 10.
34 . 1 Co 15, 10.
35 . 1 Co 15, 10.
36 . Cf. Iudic 16, 17-19.
37 . Cf. Dan 8, 24.
38 . Phil 4, 13; cf. Io 15, 5.
39 . Mt 10, 8.
40 . Act 8, 20.
41 . 1 Petr 4, 10.
42 . Cf. 1 Io 3, 17; Iac 2, 15-17.
43 . Rom 5, 1-2.
44 . Rom 2, 23.
45 . Cf. Rom 6, 16-17.
46 . Tit 2, 11-13.
47 . Eccli 24, 24-26.
48 . Cf. Mt 5, 43-44.
49 . Mt 5, 46.
50 . Rom 6, 23.
51 . Cf. Gen 2, 9.
52 . Cf. Mt 25, 35-36.
53 . Mt 5, 3-9.
54 . Cf. Is 11, 2-3.

1 . 2 Cor 6:1.
2 . Ps 44:3.
3 . Ps 44:3.
4 . Ps 44:7.
5 . Gen 26:4.
6 . Eccle 10:12.
7 . Jn 1:17.
8 . 2 Cor 6:1.
9 . Jam 1:17.
10 . Jam 1:17.
11 . Jb
12 . Iac 1, 18.
13 . Jn 1:16.
14 . Lk 1:28.
15 . Hb 4:16.
16 . Cf. Is 53:4.
17 . Eph 2:4-5.
18 . Ho 13:14.
19 . Gal 2:21.
20 . Jn 1:14.
21 . Gal 4:4.
22 . Tit 3:5-6.
23 . 2 Cor 13:13.
24 . Hb 10:28-29.
25 . Eccli 21:2.
26 . Gal 1, 15-16. The complete text is "Since however it pleased Him who set me apart from the womb of my mother and called me through His grace, to reveal His Son in me, to make Him known [evangelizarem] among the Gentiles: I immediately did not take comfort in flesh or in blood."
27 . Eccle 1:7.
28 . Eccle 1:7.
29 . Jm 4:6.
30 . Eccli 3:20.
31 . Dt 32:27.
32 . Hb 13:9.
33 . 1 Cor 15:10.
34 . 1 Cor 15:10.
35 . 1 Cor 15:10.
36 . Cf. Jg 16:17-19.
37 . Cf. Dan 8:24.
38 . Phil 4:13; cf. Jno 15:5.
39 . Mt 10:8.
40 . Act 8:20.
41 . 1 Pt 4:10.
42 . Cf. 1 Jn 3:17; Jm 2:15-17.
43 . Rm 5:1-2.
44 . Rm 2:23.
45 . Cf. Rom 6:16-17.
46 . Tit 2:11-13.
47 . Eccli 24:24-26.
48 . Cf. Mt 5:43-44.
49 . Mt 5:46.
50 . Rm 6:23.
51 . Cf. Gn 2:9.
52 . Cf. Mt 25:35-36.
53 . Mt 5:3-9.
54 . Cf. Is 11:2-3.

N.B.: Items in square [ ] brackets indicate the Latin term(s) corresponding to the immediately previous English term(s). Items in round ( ) brackets indicate English words added by the English translator for the sake of clarity, usually implicit in the Latin syntax. Principal terms which have consistent signification are indicated with their corresponding Latin term in each first instance; thereafter only when some English or Latin term is diversely or similarly translated, respectively speaking. This English translation has been released to the public domain by its author.