S. Bonaventurae Bagnoregis

H. R. E. Cardinalis &
Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis

COLLATIONES
DE SEPTEM DONIS SPIRITUS SANCTI

COLLATIO IV

DE DONO SCIENTIAE

St.. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio

Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church & Doctor of the Universal Church

CONFERENCES ON THE SEVEN GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

CONFERENCE IV

ON THE GIFT OF KNOWLEDGE

1. Deus, qui dixit de tenebris lucem splendescere, ipse illuxit in cordibus nostris ad illuminationem scientiae claritatis Dei in facie Cristi Iesu 1. -- Qui corripit gentes non arguet, qui docet homines scientiam? 2 Psalmus David dicit, quod magnus doctor scientiarum Deus est. Scitis, si aliquis habet haurire aquam, libentius haurit eam ab originali suo principio quam a rivulo. Ideo, si Dominus est doctor magnus et donator doni, de quo intendimus loqui; oportet, quod recurramus ad fontem illum ad illuminationem consequendam. Sic fecit Psalmista, sic fecit Salomon et factus est clericus magnus. In principio oportet quod elevemus animas nostras et rogemus largitorem donorum, quia non petimus temporalia, sed ultilitatem et salutem animae nostrae; et hoc placet Deo, sicut fecit Salomon, qui petiit sapientiam a Domino. Rogemus ergo Dominum ut ipse aperiat oculos mentis nostrae et det mihi lumen scientiale, ut possim aliquid loqui de dono scientiae, quod sit ad honorem Dei, etc.

1. God, who told light to grow bright from the darknes, has Himself shown in our hearts for the illumination of the knowledge [scientiam] of the brightness of God upon the Face of Christ Jesus. 1. -- Will He who corrects the Gentiles not put it in clear light [arguet], He who teaches men knowledge [scientiam] ? 2 The Psalm of David says, that God is a great teacher of all knowledge [scientiarum]. You know, if anyone draws up water, he draws it up more freely from its original beginning [principio] than from a rivulet. For that reason, if the Lord is a great teacher and grantor of gifts, of which we intend to speak; it is proper, that we run back to the that fount to sucessively pursue [ad consequendam] illumination. Thus did the Psalmist, thus did Solomon and he became a great cleric. In the beginning it is proper that we raise our souls and beg the largessor [largitorem] of gifts, because we do not ask for temporal things, but for the utility and salvation of our soul; and this is pleasing to God, as did Solomon, who asked for wisdom from the Lord. Therefore let us beg the Lord that He may open the eyes of our mind and give me the knowing-light [lumen scientiale], so that I can say something of the gift of knowledge, which may be for the honor of God, (who lives and reigns ... ).

2. Deus, qui dixit de tenebris lucem splendescere etc. Verbum istud scriptum est in secunda Epistola ad Corinthios, in quo apostolus Paulus, doctor magnus, explicat ipsius scientiae donum; et explicat ipsum donum quantum ad antecedentia et subsequentia. Donum scientiae duo antecedunt: unum est sicut lumen innatum, et aliud est sicut lumen infusum. Lumen innatum est lumen naturalis iudicatorii sive rationis; lumen superinfusum est lumen fidei. Quantum ad primum dicit: Deus, qui dixit lucem splendescere, id est lumen naturalis iudicatorii impressit creaturae rationali, id est non solum intellectum possibilem, sed etiam intellectum agentem. Quantum ad lumen fidei superinfusum dicit: Illuxit in cordibus nostris etc.; scilicet per infusionem lucis fidei. Deus naturam rationalem condidit et superaddidit gratiam. Duo igitur sunt antecedentia. -- Consequentia etiam sunt duo, scilicet clara notitia Creatoris, et revelata notitia Salvatoris. Quantum ad antecedentia dicit: Deus, qui dixit etc.; quantum ad consequentia dicit: Ad illuminationem scientiae claritatis Dei, ubi tangitur clara notitia Creatoris; in facie Christi Iesu, ubi tangitur revelata notitia Salvatoris. -- Dat Apostolus intelligere, quod anima multiformem habet claritatem et ab una transcendit in alteram. Unde Apostolus ad Corinthios: Nos vero omnes, revelata facie gloriam Domini speculantes, in eandem imaginem transformamur a claritate in claritatem, tanquam a Domini Spiritu 3. Claritas animae est scientia, econtra tenebra animae est ignorantia. Dicit: Transformamur a claritate in claritatem.

2. God, who told light to grow bright from darkness etc.. That word was written in the Second Epistle to the Corithians, in which the Apostle Paul, a great teacher, explained the gift of that knowledge; and he explained that gift as much as regards [quantum ad] its antecedents and its subsequents. The gift of knowledge is anteceded by two things: one is as an innate light, and the other is as an infused light. The innate light is the natural light of the judgement [judicatorii] or the reason; the superinfused light is the light of faith. As much as regards the first he says: God, who told light to grow bright, that is, the natural light of judgement impresses the rational creature, that is, not only the possible intellect, but even the agent intellect. As much as regards the superinfused light of faith he says: He has shown in our hearts etc.; that is, through the infusion of the light of faith. God founded (our) rational nature and superadded grace. Two, therefore are the antecedents. -- The consequents are also two, that is, a clear knowing [notitia] of the Creator, and a revealed knowing of the Savior. As much as regards the antecedents he says: God, who told etc.; as much as regards the consequents he says: for the illumination of the knowledge of the brightness of God, where the clear knowing of the Creator is touched upon; upon the Face of Christ Jesus, where the revealed knowing of the Savior is touched upon. -- The Apostle give (us) to understand, that the soul has a multiform brightness and from one it transcends into another. Whence the Apostle to the Corinthians: But we all, gazing on the glory of the Lord with revealed faces, are transformed into the same image from brightness into brightness, as by the Spirit of the Lord 3. The brightness of the soul is knowledge [scientia], and conversely the darkness of the soul is ignorance. He says We are transformed from brightness into brightness.

3. Hic notandum est, quod est claritas scientiae philosophicae, scientiae theologicae, scientiae gratuitae, et claritas scientiae gloriosae. Claritas scientiae philosophicae est magna secundum opinionem hominum mundialium, parva tamen est in comparatione ad claritatem scientiae christianae. Claritas vero scientiae theologicae parva videtur secundum opinionem mundialium, sed secundum veritatem magna est. Claritas scientiae gratuitae est maior, sed claritas scientiae gloriosae est maxima; ibi est status. Psalmus: "Mirabilis facta est scientia tua ex me, confortata est, et non potero ad eam 4, scilicet in hac vita.

3. Here it must be noted, what is the brightness of philosophical knowledge [scientiae], of theological knowledge, of gratuitous knowledge, and (what is) the brightness of glorious knowledge. The brightness of philosophical knowledge is great according to the opinion of worldly [mundialium] men, nevertheless it is small in comparison to the brighness of Christian knowledge. But the brightness of theological knowledge seems small according to the opinion of worldlings [mundialium], but according to truth it is great. The brightness of gratuitous knowledge is greater, but the brightness of glorious knowledge is the greatest; it is in that (brightness) that Paul has stood [ibi est status]. The Psalm: Wonderful has Thy knowledge [scientia] become in me [ex me], it has strengthened (me), and I can not face it [potero ad] 4, that is, in this life.

4. Omnes istae scientiae et claritates earum divinitus dantur, quamquam semper in donatione ipsarum sit maius donum. Verum est, quod scientia philosophica et theologica est donum Dei; proprie vero est donum Dei scientia gratuita; scientia vero gloriosa non tantum est donum, sed etiam praemium. In Cantico autem Annae dicitur in libro Regum: Recedant vetera de ore vestro, quia Deus scientiarum Dominus est, et ipsi praeparantur cogitationes 5; non stultae cogitationes, quae dissipantur per vias errorum, sed bonae cogitationes praeparantur Domino per vias veritatis. Iob: Nunquid nosti semitas nubium, semitas magnas et perfectas scientias? 6 Dicit semitas magnas, id est scientiam philosophicam et theologicam, quae dicuntur magnae semitae, quia multas scientias comprehendunt; semitas perfectas dicit quantum ad scientiam gratuitam et gloriosam. Semitae nubium sunt virorum perfectorum scientiae, quia, sicut nubes abstrahuntur virtute caloris in altum, ita viri perfecti in abstractione mentis sublimantur. -- De istis quatuor scientiis volumus dicere, ut ad tertiam possimus pervenire, de qua loquimur hic.

4. All that knowledge [omnes istae scientiae] and its brightness is divinely given, although always in granting them the gift is greater. It is true, that philosophical and theological knowledge is a gift of God; but properly speaking [proprie] the gift of God is gratuitous knowledge; but glorious knowledge is not only a gift, but also a reward. Moreover, In the Canticle of Anna in the Book of Kings there is said: Let the old things recede from your mouth, because the God of all knowledge [scientiarum] is the Lord, and thoughts are prepared for Him 5; not stupid thoughts, which are scattered [dissipantur] through the ways of error, but good thoughts are prepared for the Lord through the ways of truth. Job: Have you known the paths of the clouds, the great paths and all perfect knowledge [perfectas scientias] ? 6 He calls the paths great, that is philosophical and theological knowledge, which are called great paths, because they comprehend many sciences [scientias]; he calls the paths perfect as much as regards gratuitous and glorious knowledge. Of the path of the clouds are the sciences of perfect men [virorum], because, as clouds drag away the virtue of heat into the heights [in altum], so perfect men are raised aloft [sublimantur] in abstraction of mind. -- Of these four sciences we want to talk [dicere], so that we can arrive at the third, of which we are speaking here.

5. Scientia philosophica nihil aliud est quam veritatis ut scrutabilis notitia certa. Scientia theologica est veritatis ut credibilis notitia pia. Scientia gratuita est veritatis ut diligibilis notitia sancta. Scientia gloriosa est veritatis ut desiderabilis notitia sempiterna.

5. Philosophical knowledge is nothing other than a certain knowing of the truth as scrutable. Theological knowledge is a pious knowing of the truth as credible. Gratuituous knowledge is a holy knowing of the truth as lovable [diligibilis]. Glorious knowledge is a sempiternal knowing of the truth as desirable.

6. Primo incipiamus a scientia philosophica. Dico, quod scientia philosophica est veritatis ut scrutabilis notitia certa. De hac scientia dicitur in Proverbiis: Ecce, descripsi eam tripliciter in cogitationibus et scientia, ut ostenderem tibi firmitatem et eloquia veritatis 7. Potest illud verbum esse Salomonis et verbum Dei. Dico, quod postet esse verbum Dei. Ipse enim describit scientiam philosophicam tripliciter, id est secundum triplicem rationem decribit eam, ut naturalem, ut rationalem, et ut moralem, scilicet in quantum est "causa essendi, ratio intelligendi et ordo vivendi". In quantum est causa essendi, designat scientiam naturalem; in quantum est ratio intelligendi, significat scientiam rationalem; in quantum est ordo vivendi, describit scientiam moralem.

6. First let us begin from philosophical knowledge. I say, that philosophical knowledge is a certain knowing of truth as scrutable. Of this knowledge it is said in Proverbs: Behold, I have described (my doctrine) in a threefold manner and with knowledge, to show you the firmness and eloquences of (its) truth 7. That can be the word of Solomon and the word of God. I say, that it can be the word of God. For He describes philosophical knowledge in a threefold manner, that is He describes it according to a threefold reason, as natural, as rational, and as moral, that is, inasmuch as it is "the cause of existing [essendi], the reason for understanding and the order of living". Inasmuch as it is the cause of existing, it designates natural knowledge; inasmuch as it is the reason for understanding, it signifies rational knowledge; inasmuch as it is the order of living, it describes moral knowledge.

7. Nec tantum est verbum illud Dei, immo est etiam Salomonis, qui disputavit a cedro Libani usque ad hyssopum 8. Ipse dicit: Ecce, descripsi eam tibi tripliciter, ut ostenderem tibi firmitatem, id est solidam et firmam veritatem, et eloquia veritatis; ipse describit eam tripliciter, scilicet in quantum est veritas rerum, veritas sermonum et veritas morum, secundum quod est indivisio entis ab esse, et indivisio entis ad esse, et entis a fine. Veritas rerum est indivisio entis ab esse; veritas sermonum est indivisio entis ad esse; veritas morum est indivisio entis a fine. -- Veritas morum est rectitudo, secundum quam homo bene vivit intus et extra secundum dictamen iuris, quia ius est regula rectitudinis; veritas sermonum est adaequatio vocis et intellectus; veritas rerum est "adaequatio intellectus et rei". Et quia scientia philosophica eloquia veritatis docet; et triplex est veritas: ideo dicit, quod descripsit eam tripliciter.

7. Nor is it only the word of God, nay rather it is also that of Solomon, who discussed [disputavit] (everything) from a ceder of Lebanon even to hyssop. 8 He said: Behold, I have described (my doctrine) to you in a threefold manner, to show you the firmness, that is the solid and firm truth, and the eloquences of (its) truth; he described it in a threefold manner, that is inasmuch as it is the truth of things, the truth of conversations [sermonum] and the truth of morals [morum], according to which (his doctrine) is the non-division of a being from being [indiviso entis ab esse], and a non-division a being to being [entis ad esse], and of a being from its end [entis fine]. The truth of things is an non-division of a being from being; the truth of conversations is a non-division of a being to being; the truth of morals is a non-division of a being from its end. -- The truth of morals is rectitude, according to which a man lives well, inside and out [intus et extra], according to the dictate of law [dictamen iuris], because law is the rule of rectitude; the truth of conversations is the adequation of voice and intellect; the truth of things is "the adequation of intellect and thing". And because philosophical knowledge teaches the eloquences of truth; truth is also threefold: for that reason he said, that he described (his doctrine) in a threefold manner.

8. Non creditis, quod Salomon istam triplicem notitiam acquisierit? -- De scientia sermocinandi dicit, quod eam habuit. Unde in libro Sapientiae dicit: Da mihi, Domine, sedium tuarum assistricem sapientiam, ut dignus sim sedium patris mei 9. Ibi scriptum est: Mihi autem dedit Deus dicere ex sententia et praesumere digna horum quae mihi dantur. In manu eius sumus nos et sermones nostri 10. Impossibile est, quod sapientia fiat doctrina nisi per sermonem. Sermo autem non est sufficiens ad docendum, nisi sit sententiosus. Et non loquitur homo sententiose, nisi sit sermo eius discussivus, inquisitivus et persuasivus, scilicet quod habeat sermonem potentem ad loquendum omne illud, quod potest apprehendi vel nosci, vel ad quod affectus potest inclinari. Congrue autem exprimit quod dicit per grammaticam, rationabiliter investigat per scientiam logicam et efficaciter persuadet per rhetoricam. Ista est igitur pars philosophiae, scilicet scientia sermocinalis, quae triplex est, ut patet, quam adeptus est Salomon.

8. Do you not believe, that Solomon acquired that threefold knowing? -- Of the knowledge of conversing he says, that he had it. Whence in the Book of Wisdom he says: Give me, Lord, the wisdom standing before Thy thrones, that I may be worthy of the thrones of my father (David) 9. There it was written: Moreover God gave to me to speak from consideration [ex sententia] and to anticipate the worthy (sayings) of those which were given to me. In His hand are we and our conversations 10. It is impossible, that wisdom become doctrine except through conversation. Moreover conversation is not sufficient to teach, unless it be full of considerations [sit sententiosus]. And a man cannot speak in a manner full of considerations [sententiose], unless his conversation be discussive [discussivus], inquisitive and persuasive, that is, that he has conversation powerful to speak every thing, whicht he can apprehend and/or know [nosci], and/or to which his affection can be inclined. Moreover he suitably expresses what he says through grammer, rationally investigates through the science of logic [per scientiam logicam] and efficaciously persuades through rhetoric. That therefore is a part of philosophy, that is, the conversational science [scientia sermocinalis], which is threefold, as is clear, which Solomon did obtain [adeptus est].

9. Alteram partem philosophiae, scilicet quae est in veritate rerum, dicit se Salomon adeptum esse. Unde dicit in libro Sapientiae: Mihi dedit Deus eorum quae sunt scientiam veram, ut sciam dispositionem orbis terrarum et virtutes elementorum 11. Certum est, quod notitia veritatis rerum triformis est, secundum quod sunt formae concretae, formae abstractae et formae separatae. Formas concretas considerat physicus, formas abstractas metaphysicus, et formas separatas mathematicus. Unde dicit: Mihi Deus dedit scientiam eorum quae sunt, id est entium principaliter, quae vera entia, quantum ad scientiam metaphysicam; ut sciam dispositiones orbis terrrarum, quantum ad mathematicam; et virtutes elementorum, quantum ad naturalem philosophiam. Salomon scivit anni cursum ex dispositione stellarum, naturas animalium et virtutes radicum; omnia docuit Salomon.

9. The other part of philosophy, that is, which is in the truth of things, Solomon says he obtained. Whence he says in the Book of Wisdom: God gave me of those which are true knowledge, that I may know [sciam] the disposition of the globe [orbis terrarum] and the virtues of the elements 11. It is certain, that a knowing of the truth of things is triform [triformis], accord to which there are concrete forms, abstract forms and separated forms. Concrete forms he considers physics, abstract forms metaphysics, and separated forms mathematics. Whence he says: God gave me knowledge of those things which are, that is principally of beings, which (are) true beings, as much as regards the science of metaphysics; that I may know the dispositions of the globe, as much as regards mathematics; and the virtues of the elements, as much as regards natural philosophy. Solomon knew [scivit] the course of the year from the disposition of the stars, the nature of the animals and the virtues of roots; Solomon learned everything.

10. De tertia parte philosophiae, scilicet de morali, dicit etiam Salomon, quod eam est adeptus. Unde in Ecclesiaste: Lustravi universa animo meo, ut scirem et considerarem et quaererem sapientiam et rationem, et ut cognoscerem impietatem stulti et errorem imprudentium 12. Multa dicit se considerasse et omnia ordinasse ad mores. -- Carissimi! Impietas stulti est in male sentiendo de causa causarum; error imprudentium est circa regimen vitae monasticae, vel vitae oeconomicae, vel politicae, id est circa regimen sui, vel familiae, vel civitatis. Magna prudentia requiritur ad regimen sui, maior ad regimen familiae, sed maxima circa regimen civitatis. Impossibile est, quod sol illuminet remota corpora a se et non illuminet propinqua sibi. Non potest aliquis habere ordinatam familiam, nisi ipse sit ordinatus. Si velit aliquis habere servientes castos; et ipse non erit castus, hoc non potest esse. Similiter nisi homo bene regat familiam suam, non poterit bene regere civitatem, quia qualis princeps civitatis, tales et habitantes in ea 13.

10. Of the third part of philosophy, that is of morals, Solomon also says, that he obtained it. Whence in Ecclesiastes: I have purified [lustravi] all things with my soul, to know and consider [considerarem] and seek wisdom and reason, and to become acquainted [cognoscerem] with the impiety of the stupid and the error of the imprudent 12. He says that he has considered many things and has ordained all towards morals. -- Dearest ones! The impiety of the stupid is in having an evil opinion [in male sentiendo] of the Cause of causes; the error of the imprudent is about the regimen of monastic life [vitae monasticae], and/or of economic life [vita oeconomicae], and/or of political, that is, about the regimen of their own things, and/or of one's family, and/or of a city-state [civitatis]. Great prudence is required for one's own regimen, greater for the regimen of the family, but the greatest about the regimen of a city-state. It is impossible, that the sun illumine bodies remote from itself and not illumine those near to itself. One cannot have an ordered family, unless he himself be ordered. If one wants to have chaste servants; and will not himself be chaste, it cannot be. Similarly unless a man rules his family well, he cannot rule the city-state well, because as is [qualis] the prince of a city-state, such also those dwelling in it 13.

11. Ostendit igitur Salomon, se pervenisse ad triformem descriptionem scientiae philosophicae, scilicet ad descriptionem scientiae rationalis, moralis et naturalis et ad triformem descriptionem quarumlibet istarum. -- Qui haberet descriptionem istarum scientiarum secundum veritatem, maximum speculum haberet ad cognoscendum, quia nihil est in aliqua istarum scientiarum quod non importet vestigium Trinitatis. Illud esset facile ostendere, sed longum esset.

11. Therefore Solomon shows, that he arrived at the triform description of philosophical knowledge, that is, to a description of rational, moral and natural knowledge and to a triform description of each of those. -- He who has a description of those sciences according to truth, would have the largest mirror for becoming acquainted with (all things) [ad cognoscendum], because nothing is in any of those sciences which does not import the vestige of the Trinity. That would be easy to show, but it would be long (to speak about it).

12. Prima claritas, scilicet scientiae philosophicae, magna est secundum opinionem hominum mundialium; sed de facili eclipsatur, nisi homo caveat sibi a capite et cauda draconis. Si aliquid interponatur inter ipsum et solem iustitiae, patitur eclipsim stultitiae. Ieremias: Stultus factus est omnis homo a scientia sua 14, scilicet occasionaliter, non causaliter. Qui confidit in scientia philosophica et appretiatur se propter hoc et credit se esse meliorem, stultus factus est, scilicet quando per istam scientiam sine ulteriori lumine credit, se apprehendere Creatorem; sicut si homo per candelas vellet videre caelum vel corpus solare. -- Certum est, quod rationalis philosophia in rhetorica consummatur; cum sit triplex genus deliberativae, scilicet quando deliberat de utilitate, de securitate, de honestate, et eius opposito, scilicet de damno, de periculo et de peccato sive de inhonestate. Non potest homo scire, quid utile, quid damnosum, nisi ex additione ultra istam scientiam. Dicitur in Evangelio: Quid prodest homini si mundum universum lucretur, animae vero suae detrimentum patiatur? 15 Quid valet, quod homo multa sciat, si vera honestas animae relinquatur? -- Certum est etiam, quod secundum scientiam moralem non potest homo scire, quid utile, quid damnosum, nisi ex additione ultra scientiam moralem, secundum quod scientia moralis est ritus colendi, norma vivendi et censura iudicandi. Quis potest scire ritum colendi per philosophiam naturalem? -- Esto, quod homo habeat scientiam naturalem et metaphysicam, quae se extendit ad substantias summas, et ibi deveniat homo, ut ibi quiescat; hoc est impossibile, quin cadat in errorem, nisi sit adiutus lumine fidei, scilicet ut credat homo Deum trinum et unum, potentissimum et optimum secundum ultimam influentiam bonitatis. Si aliter credas insanis circa Deum; quod proprium est Dei attribuis alteri, blasphemas et idolatra es, sicut si homo simplicitatem Dei vel huiusmodi attribuat alteri. -- Igitur ista scientia praecipitavit et obscuravit philosophos, quia non habuerunt lumen fidei. Unde Apostolus: Qui cum cognovissent Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, aut gratias egerunt; sed evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et obscuratum est insipiens cor eorum; dicentes se sapientes stulti facti sunt 16. Et in libro Sapientiae: Si enim tantum potuerunt scire, ut possent aestimare saeculum, quomodo huius Dominum non facilius invenerunt? 17 -- Philosophica scientia via est ad alias scientias; sed qui ibi vult stare cadit in tenebras.

12. The first brightness, that is, of philosophical knowledge, is great according to the opinion of worldly men; but it is easily eclipsed [de facili eclipsatur], unless a man himself beware of the head and tail of the dragon. If anything is interposed between himself and the Sun of justice, he will suffer the eclipse of stupidity. Jerimiah: Stupid has every man become from his own knowledge 14, that is, occasionally, not causally. He who confides in philosophical knowledge and apprises himself on account of this and believes himself to be better, has become stupid, that is, when through that science without an ultierior light he believes, that he apprehends the Creator; as if a man by candles wanted to see heaven and/or a solar body [corpus solare]. It is certain, that rational philosophy is consummated in rhetoric; since threefold is the genus of the deliberative, that is, when one deliberates on the utility, the security, the honesty, and its opposite, that is on damage [damno], on danger and on sin or on dishonesty [inhonestate]. A man cannot know, what be useful, what be damaging, except from an addition beyond that science. There is said in the Gospel: What does it profit a man if he gain the entire world [mundum universum lucretur], but suffer the detriment of his own soul? 15 What value is it [valet], that a man know many things, if he reliquishes true honesty of soul? -- It is also certain, that according to moral knowledge a man cannot know, what be useful, what be damaging, except from an addition beyond moral knowledge, according to which moral knowledge is a rite of worshipping [ritus colendi], a norm of living and a censure of judging. Who can know the rite of worshipping through natural philosophy? -- It will (only) be, because a man has natural and metaphysical knowledge, which extends itself towards the highest [summas] substances, and there a man arrive, to rest there; it is impossible, that he not fall into error, unless he be assisted [adiutus] by the light of faith, that is, that man believe God, Three and One, most powerful and best according to the ultimate influence of goodness. Otherwise if you believe insane things [insanis] about God; you attribute what is proper to God to another, you blaspheme and are an idolater, as if a man were to attribute the simplicity of God and/or something of this kind to another. -- Therefore that knowledge casts philosophers down headlong and obsures them, because they do not have the light of faith. Whence the Apostle: They who when they have become acquainted with God, have not glorified Him as God, nor have given thanks; but have become vain in (their own) thoughts, and their foolish [insipiens] heart has been obscured; calling themselves wise they have become stupid 16. And in the Book of Wisdom: For if only they could know how to judge [aestimare] the age, by this means would they not have found the Lord more easily? 17 -- Philosophical knowledge is the way to the other sciences; but he who wants to stand still [stare] there, falls into darkness.

13. Ultra scientiam philosophicam dedit nobis Deus scientiam theologicam, quae est veritatis credibilis notitia pia; quia lux aeterna, scilicet Deus, est lux inaccessibilis nobis, quamdiu sumus mortales et habemus oculos vespertilionis. Unde Augustinus: "Acies mentis invalida in tam excellenti lumine non figitur, nisi per iustitiam fidei emundetur". Ideo super fidem fundata est scientia theologica: sicut scientiae philosophicae super prima principia sua fundantur ita scientia Scripturae fundatur super articulos fidei, qui sunt duodecim fundamenta civitatis 18. De ista scientia dicitur in Isaia: Non nocebunt et non occident in universo monte sancto meo; sequitur: quia repleta est terra scientia Domini et velut aquae maris operientes 19 eam, comparatur sacra Scriptura aquae maris propter profundidatem mysteriorum, propter multiformitatem sensuum et propter stabilitionem Ecclesiarum.

13. Beyond philosophical knowledge God has given us theological knowledge, which is the pious knowing of credible truth; because Eternal Light, that is God, is a light inaccessible to us, so long as we are mortal and have eyes for twilight [vespertilionis]. Whence (St.) Augustine: "keeness of the mind (is) weak [invalida], in so far as it is not fastened by an excellent light, unless it be cleansed through the justice of faith". For that reason theological knowledge is founded upon faith: as the philosophical sciences are founded upon their first principles, so the knowledge of Scripture is founded upon the articles of faith, which are the twelve foundations of the (heavenly) city [civitatis] 18. Of that knowledge it is said in Isaiah: They will not wound and they will not kill on all [universo] My holy mountain; there follows: because the earth has been filled full with the knowledge of God and as the waters of the sea covering it up 19, Sacred Scripture is compared to the water of the sea on account of its profundity of mysteries, on account of its multiformity of senses and on account of its stabilizing [stabilitionem] of the Churches.

14. Primo, dico, comparatur sacra Scriptura aquae maris propter profunditatem mysteriorum. Mare est profundum nec potest homo ipsum transvadere; ita est tanta profunditas mysteriorum sacrae Scripturae, quod, quantumque homo sit illuminatus et quantaecumque sit industriae, non potest ad ipsarum profunditatem attingere. Unde Isaias: Erit vobis visio omnium sicut verba libri signati, quem cum dederint scienti litteras, dicent: "Lege istum", et respondebit: "Non possum; signatus est enim". Et dabitur liber nescienti litteras, diceturque ei: "Lege"; et respondebit" "Nescio litteras". Nec sciens nec non sciens poterit legere. Quis ergo leget ipsum? Dico, quod qui cum superbia vult intrare sanctuarium Dei non poterit, licet sit litteratus; similiter, si illitteratus velit intrare, stultus esset. Oportet igitur, quod habeat litteraturam et spiritum.

14. First, I say, Sacred Scripture is compared to the water of the sea on account of its profundity of mysteries. The sea is profound nor can a man rush accross it [transvadere]; so great is the profundity of mysteries of Sacred Scripture, that, however much a man be illumined and however much he be industrious, he cannot attain to their profundity. Whence Isaiah: You will have a vision of all things as words of a sealed book, which when they give it to one who knows letters, they say: "Read!", and he responds: "I cannot; for it is sealed". And a book is given to one not knowing letters, and it will be said to him: "Read!"; and he will respond "I do not know letters". Neither the one knowing nor the one not knowing could read. Who therefore will read it? I say, that he who by pride wants to enter the sanctuary of God will not be able, even though he be litterate [litteratus]; similiarly, if the illiterate wants to enter, he is stupid. It is proper therefore, that one have literacy [litteraturam] and spirit.

15. Secundo comparatur sacra Scriptura aquae maris propter multiformitatem sensuum. In mari sunt diversae scaturitiones; ita ut sacra Scriptura in una littera est multiplex sententia. Unde in Daniele: Tu autem, Daniel, claude sermones et signa librum usque ad tempus statutum; plurimi pertransibunt, et multiplex erit scientia 20. -- Mirantur aliqui, quod in eadem Scriptura habemus tot sententias. Dicit Anselmus, quod in eadem terra possunt diversa plantari; terra per virtutem divinam varias facit pullulationes; ita per Spiritum sanctum in eadem littera sunt sententiae variae. Nec est inconveniens aequivoco multipliciter posito uti aequivoce. In theologia significant et res et voces. Ideo, quando sunt plures proprietates rei, tunc per unam rem plura significantur. Quot sunt proprietates solis, tot, quando sol significat iustum, sunt proprietates iusti.

15. Second, Sacred Scripture is compared to the water of the sea on account of its multiformity of senses. In the sea there are diverse currents [scaturationes]; thus [ita ut] Sacred Scripture in one letter is manifold with consideration [sententia]. Whence in Daniel: Moreover, you, Daniel, close (your) conversations and seal the book until the time established; very many things will pass by [pertansibunt], and manifold will knowledge be 20. -- Some wonder, that in the same Scripture we have so many considerations. (St.) Anselm says, that in the same earth diverse things can be planted; the earth through divine virtue makes various things sprout [varias facit pullulationes]; so through the Holy Spirit there are in the same letter various considerations. Nor is it inconvenient when the equivocal has been positied in a manifold manner as equivocal. In theology both things and voices are signified. For that reason, when there are very many properties of a thing, then through one thing very many things are signified. As many as are the properties of the sun, all, when the sun signifies what is just, are properties of the just.

16. Tertia ratio, quare sacra Scriptura comparatur aquae maris, est propter stabilitionem Ecclesiarum. Psalmus: Super maria fundavit eam 21; et alibi: Qui fundasti terram super stabilitatem suam 22. Deriserunt aliqui David, quia dixit, quod Deus fundavit terram super aquas. Terra, cum sit sicca, nisi esset humidum, quod penetrat terram, redigeretur in pulverem; et sicut corpus humanum per venas recipit humorem, ita necesse est, quod a mari veniant aquae dulces et teneant terram. Dicit, quod fundavit terram super aquas, propter mysterium. Terra, quam implevit Spiritus, est hierarchia ecclesiastica; qui appendit tribus digitis molem terrae 23, quia fundavit sacram Ecclesiam super eloquia divina. Eloquia sacra sunt stabilimenta. Dicit Apostolus ad Timotheum: Scribo tibi, Timothee, ut scias, qualiter oportet te in domo Dei conversari, quae est Ecclesia Dei vivi, columna et firmamentum veritatis 24.

16. The third reason, why sacred Scripture is compared to the water of the sea, is on account of its stabilizing of the Churches. The Psalm: Upon the seas Thou has founded her 21; and elsewhere: Thou who has founded the earth upon its stability 22. Some deride David, who said, that God founded the earth upon waters. The earth, since it is dry, unless there be moisture [humidum], which penetrates the earth, is driven back into dust; and as the human body receives humor through veins, so it is necessary, that from the sea come sweet waters and that they hold the earth (together). He said, that He founded the earth upon the waters, on account of a mystery. The earth, which the Holy Spirit fills [implevit], is the ecclesiastical hierarchy; (He said:) He who weighs on three fingers the mass of the earth 23, because He founded the sacred Church upon divine eloquences. Sacred eloquences are stabilizers [stabilimenta]. The Apostle says to Timothy: I write to you, Timothy, so that you may know, in what manner it is proper that you comport yourself in the house of God, which is the Church of the living God, the column and firmament of the truth 24.

17. Ubi sacra Scriptura deficit, necesse est, terram, id est Ecclesiam, commoveri: Nescierunt neque intellexerunt, in tenebris ambulant; movebuntur omnia fundamenta terrae 25. Arius, qui fundamentum Trinitatis voluit auferre; Nestorius, qui voluit unitatem personae, et Eutyches, qui volebat confundere naturas in Christo; isti concusserunt fundamenta Ecclesiae. -- Omnis pontifex debet scire istam scientiam; unde petitur ab hierarcha: Scis vetus testamentum et novum? -- Rex Angliae petiit a quodam episcopo, quid significarent duo cornua in mitra sua. Respondit, et bene, quod significant duo testamenta, quae espicopi scire debent. "Et quid significant illa duo pendicula, quae pendent post tergum?" Respondit, quod significant ignorantiam utriusque, "quia neque hoc neque illud scimus, sed totum proiecimus post tergum". Et in hoc male dixit.

17. Where Sacred Scripture is lacking, it is necessary, that the earth, that is the Church, be thoroughly moved: They have not known nor have they understood, they walk in darkness; all the foundations of the earth shall be moved 25. Arius, who wanted to bear off the foundation of the Trinity; Nestorius, who wanted (to bear off) the unity of the Person, and Eutyches, who wanted to confound the natures in Christ; those thoroughly struck at the foundations of the Church. -- Every pontiff ought to know that science; whence it is sought from the hierarch: Do you know the Old and New Testament? -- The King of the Angles sought from a certain bishop, what the two horns signified upon his mitre. He responded, and well, that they signified the two Testaments, which bishops ought to know. "And what do those two little hanging things signify, which hang behind (your) back?" He responded, that they signified the ignorance of both, "because we know neither the one nor the other, but throw both behind (our) back." And in this he spoke badly.

18. Quia hierarchia ecclesiastica fundata est in Scriptura, quae comparatur aquae maris propter ista tria; ideo sententia data est contra illos qui non habent istam scientiam. In Osee: Quia tu repulisti scientiam, repellam te, ne sacerdotio fungaris mihi 26. A gubernaculo navis et a regimine civitatis repellitur qui nihil scit de regimine. Si fundamenta Ecclesiae consistunt in scientia sacrae Scripturae, ideo qui sacram Scripturam nescit repellendus est ab officio et dignitate ecclesiastica. Si caecus vellet alium ducere, maxima fatuitas esset 27. Non sorte nec amicitia eligendus est nauta. -- Et sciendum, quod scientia repellitur, quando homo non curat eam addiscere. Isaias: Propterea captivus ductus est populus meus, quia non habuit scientiam 28, scilicet in capite neque in membris. -- Item, repellitur scientia, quando homo scit scientiam et non vult secundum scientiam vivere nec eam implere. Unde dicit Dominus: Vae vobis, Scribae et Legisperiti! quia tulistis clavem scientiae; ipsi non introistis et eos qui introibant, prohibuistis 29. Medicus si comedit cibum, quem prohibet infirmo, scandalizatur infirmus et vult illum cibum comedere. -- Quare vae vobis, Scribae et Pharisaei! quia scienti bonum et non facienti peccatum est 30, ut dicit beatus Iacobus. Ex scientia culpa augetur etiam et poena; unde in Luca: Servus, qui cognovit voluntatem Domini sui et non praeparavit et non fecit secundum voluntatem eius, vapulabit multis 31. Si homo non prohibeat malum exemplo, vel consilio, vae ipsi! Facis te doctorem sacrae Scripturae, sed suades contrarium bono et veritati. Qui deberet incedere per viam rectam, et alter diceret ei, quod incederet per viam tortam; esset peccatum eius inexpiabile. Impediendo salutem alterius exemplo, consilio, vel suadendo, oportet dare animam tuam pro anima illius 32. Nunquid, si possum alium trahere ad id quod melius, et traho ipsum ad peius, non graviter pecco? Si impedio bonum alterius, peius facio quam diabolus; quia diabolus facit sicut hostis. -- Ista scientia, si non adsit operis impletio, non est utilis, sed damnosa. Prima claritas potest obscurari, sed ista potest damnari.

18. Because the ecclesiastical hierarchy has been founded on Scriputre, which is compared to the water of the sea on account of those three things; for that reason a sentence [sententia] has been given against those who do not have that science. In Hosea: Because you have repelled knowlege, I will repell you, lest you busy yourself [fungaris] in My priesthood 26. From the helm of a ship and from the regimen of a city-state is repelled him who knows nothing of regimen. If the foundations of the Church consist in the science of Sacred Scipture, for that reason he who does not know Sacred Scripture must be repelled from the ecclesiastical office and dignity. If a blind man wants to lead another, it would be the greatest folly [fatuitas] 27. Neither by lot nor by friendship must one be chosen as a sailor. -- And it must be known, that knowledge is repelled, when a man does not care to learn more of it [eam addiscere]. Isaiah: On that account My people were lead captive, because they had not knowledge 28, that is, neither in (their) head nor in (their) members. -- Likewise, knowledge is repelled, when a man knows a science and does not want to live according to that science nor employ it [eam implere]. Whence the Lord says: Woe to you, Scribes and experts in the Law! because you have taken away [tulisti] the key of knowledge; you yourselves have not entered and those who were entering, you have prohibited 29. If a doctor eats the food, which he prohibits to an infirm person, the infirm person is scandalized and wants to eat that food. -- Wherefore Woe to you, Scribes and Pharisees! because for the one knowing good and not doing it, it is a sin 30, as blessed James says. From knowledge fault is increased and also punishment; whence in Luke: The servant, who is acquainted with the wil of his Lord and does not prepare and does not act according to his will, will be flogged with many things 31. If a man does not prohibit evil by example, and/or counsel, woe to him! You make yourself a doctor [doctorem] of Sacred Scripture, but you recommend [suades] the contrary to good and truth. He who ought to have marched [incedere] by the right way, and another says to him, that he marches through the crooked way; for him it would be an inexpiable sin. To the one impeding the salvation of anther by example, counsel, and/or by persuasion [suadendo], it is proper to give your life soul on behalf of his soul 32. Do I, if I can draw another to that which is better, and I draw him to what is worse, not sin gravely? If I impede the good of another, I act worse than the devil; because the devil acts as an enemy. -- That knowledge, if fulfillment of the work is not present [non adsist], it is not useful, but dangerous. The first brightness can darken, but that one can damn.

19. Ideo aliam claritatem oportet habere, scilicet scientiae gratuitae, quae est forma claritatum duarum praecedentium. Deficis in tertio signo 33, si non habes istam scientiam. Ista scientia est veritatis ut credibilis et diligibilis notitia sancta. De ista scientia dicitur in libro Sapientiae: Iustum deduxit Dominus per vias rectas et ostendit illi regnum Dei; honestavit illum laboribus et dedit illi scientiam sanctorum 34. Scientia gratuita dicitur scientia sanctorum ex triplici causa.

19. For that reason it is proper to have the other brightness, that is of gratuitous knowledge, which is the form of the two preceding brightnesses. You are lacking in the third sign 33, if you do not have that knowledge. That knowledge is a holy knowing of the truth as credible and lovable. Of that knowledge it is said in the Book of Wisdom: The Lord has lead forth the just through straight ways and has shown him the Kingdom of God; He has honored him in labors and given him the science of the saints 34. Gratuitous knowledge is called the science of the saints for a threefold reason [causa].

20. Primo, quia a Spiritu sancto datur; dico a Spiritu sancto movente animam, inspirante et informante ad sanctitatem. Dico a Spiritu sancto inspirante ad sanctitatis notitiam, ad sanctitatis placentiam et ad sanctitatis custodiam. Unde Apostolus ad Corinthios: Nos non spiritum huius mundi accepimus, sed spiritum, qui ex Deo est, ut sciamus quae a Deo donata sunt nobis 35; et quomodo? Si scimus, custodimus et approbamus inspirata per Spiritum sanctum ad sanctitatis notitiam, ad sanctitatis placentiam et custodiam. Unde in Ioanne: Pater, sanctifica eos in veritate 36.

20. First, because it is given by the Holy Spirit; I say by the Holy Spirit moving the soul, inspiring and informing it to sanctity. I say by the Holy Spirit inspiring it to the knowing of sanctity, to the agreeableness [placentiam] of sanctity and to the custody of sanctity. Whence the Apostle to the Corinthians: We have not accepted the spirit of this world, but the spirit, which is from God, that we may know the things which have been granted by God to us 35; and in what manner? If we know, guard and approve the things inspired by the Holy Spirit for the knowing of sanctity, for the agreeableness of sanctity and its custody. Whence in John: Father, sanctify them in the truth 36 .

21. Alio modo dicitur scientia gratuita scientia Sanctorum, quia nihil vitiositatis habet admixtum, nihil carnalitatis, nihil curiositatis et nihil vanitatis. Unde in Levitico: Dixit quoque Dominus ad Aaron: Vinum et omne, quod inebriare potest, non bibetis tu et filii tui, ut habeatis scientiam discernendi inter sanctum et profanum 37. Qui habet scientiam discernendi inter sanctum et profanum ab omni eo, quod inebriare potest, abstinebit, id est ab omni delectatione superflua in creatura; haec est vinum inebrians. Sive quis propter vanitatem, sive propter curiositatem, sive carnalitatem inclinet ad delectationem superfluam, quae est in creatura; non habet scientiam sanctorum. Dicitur in Genesi: De omni ligno, quod est in paradiso, comedes; de ligno autem scientiae boni el mali non comedes, quia, quacumque hora comederitis, morte moriemini 38. Adam cum uxore sua contraxit vitium curiositatis, quando diabolus dixit eis: Eritis sicut dii, scientes bonum et malum 39; contraxit etiam vitium carnalitatis, quando comedit de fructu; contraxit etiam vitium vanitatis, quando voluit esse sicut dii. -- Audite, fratres: qui scientiam habent sanctorum, scilicet clerici, caveant sibi, ne aliquid vitiositatis habeant admixtum; quia, si admisceat homo aliquid vitiositatis, amittit scientiam discernendi inter bonum et malum.

21. In another manner gratuitous knowledge is called the science of the Saints, because it has mixed into it [habet admixtum] nothing of viciousness [vitiositatis], nothing of carnality, nothing of curiosity and nothing of vanity. Whence in Leviticus: The Lord also said to Aaron: Wine and all, that can inebriate, do not drink, you and your sons, that you may have the knowledge of discerning among the holy and the profane 37. He who has the knowledge of discerning among the holy and the profane will abstain from all that, which can inebriate, that is, from all superfluous delectation in a creature; this is the wine (that) inebriates. Anyone who either on account of vanity, or on account of curiosity, or on account of carnality inclines to a superfluous delectation, which is in a creature; does not have the science of the saints. It is said in Genesis: From every tree, which is in paradise, you may eat; however of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat, because, in whatever hour you eat it, you will die by death 38. Adam with his wife [uxore] contracted the vice of curiosity, when the devil said to them: You will be as gods, knowing good and evil 39; He also contracted the vice of carnality, when he ate of the fruit; he also contracted the vice of vanity, when he wanted to be as gods (are). -- Hear, brothers; who have the science of the saints, that is, you clerics, bewares of yourselves, lest you have mixed into (yourselves) something of viciousness; because, if a man mix into himself something of viciousness, he looses [amittit] the knowledge of discerning between good and evil.

22. Tertio dicitur scientia gratuita scientia Sanctorum, quia habet aemulationem omnis sanctitatis. -- Unde in libro Ecclesiastae: In multa scientia erit indignatio; qui addit scientiam addit dolorem 40. Sciens homo defectus suos, habet dolorem compunctionis pro se ipso, dolorem compassionis pro proximo, et dolorem aemulationis pro honore Dei. -- Psalmus: Filii hominum, usquequo gravi corde? Ut quid diligitis vanitatem et quaeritis mendacium? Et scitote, quoniam mirificavit Dominus Sanctum suum; Dominus exaudiet me, cum clamavero ad eum. Irascimini, et nolite peccare; quae dicitis in cordibus vestris in cubilibus vestris compungimini 41. Qui veram habet scientiam et novit Deum et videt, se non ambulare recte nec perfecte, in continuo dolore est, quia videt, quod dissipentur eius affectus et cogitationes. Augustinus: "Scientia parit luctum". -- Videt homo strages corporum, dolet multum. Qui igitur videt strages animarum, quomodo potest se abstinere a lacrimis? Dolor iste multum placet Deo. Dicit Dominus de ista scientia: Misericordiam volo et non sacrificium, et scientiam Dei plus quam holocausta 42. Scio infirmitates alienas; debeo compati eis. Isaias: Vidimus eum, virum dolorum et scientem infirmitatem 43. Non est spiritus scientiae Dei in isto membro, quando videt membrum capitis sui laesum et non condolet ei. David dolebat de morte Absalonis, qui tamen ipsum persecutus erat. Est igitur dolor compunctionis pro se ipso, dolor compassionis pro proximis. -- Tertius dolor est aemulationis pro honore divino. Unde in libro Machabaeorum: Tu, Domine, qui habes scientiam, nosti, quod cum a morte liberari possem, duros sustineo corporis dolores; secundum animam vero propter timorem tuum libenter hoc patior 44. Verba ista dixit Eleazarus, quando potius voluit mori, quam simulationem comedendi carnes porcinas facere. Hoc non docet philosophia, quod pro conclusione exponam me morti.

22. Third, gratuitous knowledge is called the science of the Saints, because it contains a rivalry [habet aemulationem] for all sanctity. -- Whence in the Book of Ecclesiastes: In much knowledge will indignation be; he who adds knowledge adds grief 40. A man knowing [sciens] his defects, has the grief of compunction on his own behalf, the grief of compassion on behalf of his neighbor, and the grief of rivalry on behalf of the honor of God. -- The Psalm: Sons of men, how long heavy in heart? So that you love vanity and seek mendacity? And you shall know, that the Lord has made His Holy One wonderful; the Lord will hear me out, when I cry to Him. Grow angry and do not sin; for what you say in your hearts upon your beds, be sorry [compugnimini] 41. He who has true knowledge and knows [novit] God and sees, that he does not walk uprightly nor perfectly, is in continuous grief, because he sees, that his affections and thoughts are scattered [dissipentur]. (St.) Augustine: "Knowledge begets the expression of sorrow [luctum]". -- A man sees a carnage of bodies, he grieves much. Therefore he who sees a carnage of souls, in what manner can he abstain from tears? That grief pleases God much. The Lord says of that knowledge: Mercy I want and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than holocaust 42. I know others' infirmities; I ought to suffer with [compati] them. Isaiah: We saw Him, a man of griefs and one knowing infirmity 43. There is not the spirit of the knowledge of God in that member, when he sees a member of his Head wounded [laesum] and does not grieve with him. David grieved from the death of Absalom, who nevertheless had persecuted him. Therefore there is grief of compunction on one's own behalf, grief of compassion on behalf of one's neighbor. -- The third grief is the rivalry on behalf of the divine honor. Whence in the Book of Maccabees: Thou, Lord, who have knowledge, have known [nosti], that when I can be freed from death, I sustain hard griefs of the body; but according to my soul on account of fear of Thee I freely suffer this 44. Those words Eleazar said, when he wanted rather to die, than make a semblance of eating pieces of pork [carnes porcinas]. This, philosophy does not teach, that on behalf of a conclusion I expose myself to death.

23. Psalmus: Servus tuus sum ego; da mihi intellectum, ut sciam testimonia tua 45. Scientia gratuita docet scire et modum sciendi. Unde super illud Apostoli: Si quis autem se existimat scire aliquid, nondum cognovit, quomodo oporteat eum scire 46; dicit Bernardus: "Vides, quod non approbat Apostolus multa scientem, sed modum sciendi; vide, quod omnem fructum et utilitatem scientiae in modo sciendi constituit. Quid dicit modum sciendi? Scire, quo ordine, quo studio, quo fine quisque addiscat: quo ordine, ut id prius addiscat, quod maturius est ad salutem; quo studio, ut id ardentius, quod vehementius trahit ad amorem Dei; quo fine, ut non propter inanem gloriam, aut curiositatem, sed propter aedificationem suam et proximi addiscat. Sunt qui scire volunt tantum, ut sciant, et turpis curiositas est. Sunt qui addiscunt et scire volunt, ut sciantur, et turpis vanitas est. Et sunt qui scire volunt, ut scientiam vendant pro pecunia, aut honoribus, et turpis quaestus est. Sunt qui scire volunt, ut alios aedificent, et caritas est. Et sunt qui scire volunt, ut aedificentur, et prudentia est".

23. The Psalm: Thy servant am I; give me understanding, to know Thy testimonies 45. Gratuitous knowledge teaches one to know and the manner of knowing. Whence upon this matter of the Apostle: However if anyone estimates himself to know something, he has not yet become acquainted with [nondum cognovit] the manner in which it is proper to know 46; (St.) Bernard says: "You see, that the Apostle does not approve the one knowing much, but the manner of knowing; see, that he has established every fruit and utility of knowledge in the manner of knowing. What does he call the manner of knowing? To know, in what order, in what study, to what end anyone learns (something) more [addiscat]; in what order, to learn in addition [addiscat] first that, which is more suited [maturius] to (his) salvation; in what study, to (learn in addition) more ardently that, which more vehemently draws him to the love [ad amorem] of God; to what end, to learn more not on account of inane glory, or curiostiy, but on account of his own edification and that of his neighbor. There are those who want only, to know, and that is foul curiosity. There are those who learn more and want to know, to be known [sciantur], and that is foul vanity. And there are those who want to know, to sell knowledge for money, or for honors, and that is a foul source of profit [quaestus]. There are those who want to know, to edify others, and that is charity. And there are those who want to know, to be edified, and that is prudence".

24. Scientia inflat, sed caritas aedificat 47; ideo oportet iungere cum scientia caritatem, ut homo habeat simul scientiam et caritatem, ut possit impleri illud quod dicit Apostolus: In caritate radicati et fundati, ut possitis comprehendere cum omnibus sanctis, quae sit longitudo, latitudo, sublimitas et profundum, scire etiam supereminentem scientiae claritatem Christi 48. Ista est scientia, quae est donum Spiritus sancti.

24. Knowledge inflates, but charity edifies 47; for that reason it is proper to join charity with knowledge, so that a man have at once knowledge and charity, to be able to fulfill that which the Apostle says: In charity (be) rooted and founded, so that you can comprehend with all the saints, what is the length, breadth, sublimity and depth, to know also the supereminent brightness of the knowledge of Christ 48. That is the knowledge, which is the gift of the Holy Spirit.

25. De ultima scientia, scilicet de scientia gloriosa, dicam unum verbum. Dicitur de ea in libro Sapientiae: Nosse te summa iustitia est; sequitur: et radix est immortalitatis 49. Ista scientia initiatur in contemplativis, perpetuatur in dormientibus et consummatur in resurgentibus. Istam scientiam nobis praestare dignetur qui cum Patre, etc.

25. Of the last knowledge, that is, of glorious knowledge, I will speak one word. Of this it is said in the Book of Wisdom: To know[nosse] Thee is most high justtice; there follows: and it is the root of immortality 49. That knowledge is initiated in contemplatives, perpetuated in sleepers and consummated in the resurrected [resurgentibus]. May He deign to present that knowledge to us, who with the Father (lives and reigns ...).


1. 2 Cor 4, 6.

2. Ps 93, 10.

3. 2 Cor 3, 18.

4. Ps 138, 6.

5. 1 Reg 2, 3.

6. Iob 37, 16.

7. Prov 22, 20-21.

8. 3 Reg 4, 33.

9. Sap 9, 4.12.

10. Sap 7, 15-16.

11. Sap 7, 17.

12. Eccle 7, 26.

13. Eccli 10, 2; cf. 1 Tim 3, 2-7.

14. Ier 10, 14.

15. Mt 16, 26.

16. Rom 1, 21-22.

17. Sap 13, 9.

18. Cf. Ap 21, 14.

19. Is 11, 9.

20. Dan 12, 4.

21. Ps 23, 2.

22. Ps 103, 5.

23. Is 40, 12.

24. 1 Tim 3, 14-15.

25. Ps 81, 5.

26. Os 4, 6.

27. Cf. Mt 15, 14.

28. Is 5, 13.

29. Lc 11, 52.

30. Iac 4, 17.

31. Lc 12, 47.

32. Cf. Ex 21, 23-24.

33. Cf. Ex 8, 19. ???

34. Sap 10, 10.

35. 1 Cor 2, 12.

36. Io 17, 17.

37. Lev 10, 8-10.

38. Gen 2, 16-17.

39. Gen 3, 5.

40. Eccle 1, 18.

41. Ps 4, 3-5.

42. Os 6, 6.

43. Is 53, 2-3.

44. 2 Mach 6, 30.

45. Ps 118, 125.

46. 1 Cor 8, 2.

47. 1 Cor 8, 1.

48. Eph 3, 17-19.

49. Sap 15, 3.


1. 2 Cor 4:6.

2. Ps 93:10.

3. 2 Cor 3:18.

4. Ps 138:6.

5. 1 Kg 2:3.

6. Job 37:16.

7. Prov 22:20-21.

8. 3 Kg 4:33.

9. Ws 9:4.12.

10. Ws 7:15-16.

11. Ws 7:17.

12. Eccle 7:26.

13. Eccli 10:2; cf. 1 Tim 3:2-7.

14. Jer 10:14.

15. Mt 16:26.

16. Rm 1:21-22.

17. Ws 13:9.

18. Cf. Ap 21:14.

19. Is 11:9.

20. Dan 12:4.

21. Ps 23:2.

22. Ps 103:5.

23. Is 40:12.

24. 1 Tim 3:14-15.

25. Ps 81:5.

26. Ho 4:6.

27. Cf. Mt 15:14.

28. Is 5:13.

29. LK 11:52.

30. Jm 4:17.

31. LK 12:47.

32. Cf. Ex 21:23-24.

33. Cf. Ex 8:19. ???

34. Ws 10:10.

35. 1 Cor 2:12.

36. Jn 17:17.

37. Lev 10:8-10.

38. Gen 2:16-17.

39. Gen 3:5.

40. Eccle 1:18.

41. Ps 4:3-5.

42. Ho 6:6.

43. Is 53:2-3.

44. 2 Mac 6:30.

45. Ps 118:125.

46. 1 Cor 8:2.

47. 1 Cor 8:1.

48. Eph 3:17-19.

49. Ws 15:3.


N.B.: Items in square [ ] brackets indicate the Latin term(s) corresponding to the immediately previous English term(s). Items in round ( ) brackets indicate English words added by the English translator for the sake of clarity, usually implicit in the Latin syntax. Principal terms which have consistent signification are indicated with their corresponding Latin term in each first instance; thereafter only when some English or Latin term is diversely or similarly translated, respectively speaking. This English translation has been released to the public domain by its author.