S. Bonaventurae Bagnoregis

H. R. E. Cardinalis &
Doctor Ecclesiae Universalis

COLLATIONES
DE SEPTEM DONIS SPIRITUS SANCTI

COLLATIO IX

DE DONO SAPIENTIAE

St.. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio

Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church & Doctor of the Universal Church

CONFERENCES ON THE SEVEN GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

CONFERENCE IX

ON THE GIFT OF WISDOM

1. Si consurrexistis cum Christo, quae sursum sunt quaerite, ubi Christus est in dextera Dei sedens; quae sursum sunt sapite, non quae super terram 1. -- Fili, concupiscens sapientiam, conserva iustitiam, et Deus praebebit illam tibi 2. Verba ultima sunt in Ecclesiastico, in quibus ostendit Ecclesiasticus, qualiter homo poterit adipisci donum sapientiae. Verum est, quod a Deo est illud donum; sed si vis ipsum habere, oportet, te sapientiam concupiscere, quia non intrat sapientia in animam, nisi quae magno affectu fertur ad eam, nec negatur animae desideranti; unde in libro Sapientiae: Optavi, et datus est mihi sensus; et invocavi, et venit in me spiritus sapientiae 3. Desiderio sapientiae debet servari iustitia, quia non concordat sapientia iniquitati; unde dicit: conserva iustitiam. Inter alia haec est summa iustitia, ut homo non sit ingratus Deo, sed dona sibi collata refundat in datorem. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Danti mihi sapientiam dabo gloriam 4, quia, si de sapientia gloriaris, hoc ipso sapientiam perdis; Ieremias: Non glorietur sapiens in sapientia sua, et non glorietur fortis in fortitudine sua 5. Et causa huius redditur in Ezechiele, ubi dicitur: Tu, plenus sapientia et decore, in deliciis paradisi Dei fuisti; perdidisti sapientiam tuam in decore tuo 6. -- Haec est iustitia summa, ut demus Deo gloriam et petamus ab ipso sapientiam. Unde in Canonica Iacobi: Si quis vestrum indiget sapientia, postulet eam a Deo etc., in fide nihil haesitans 7. Et quia ego locuturus de sapientia indigeo sapientia, et vos auditores similiter; ideo in principio rogemus Dominum etc.

1. If you have risen together with Christ, seek the things which are above, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God; taste [sapite] the things which are above, not those which are upon the earth 1. -- Son, desiring [concupiscens] wisdom, preserve justice, and God will hold it out to you [praebebit illam tibi] 2. The last words are in Ecclesiasticus, in which Ecclesiasticus shows, in what manner a man can obtain [adipisci] the gift of wisdom. It is true, that this gift is from God; but if you want to have it, it is proper, that you desire wisdom, because wisdom does not enter into the soul, unless it be brought towards it by a great affection, nor is it denied to the soul desiring it [desideranti]; whence in the Book of Wisdom: I wished, and sense was given to me; and I invoked, and there came to me the spirit of wisdom 3. After (having obtained) a desire for wisdom, justice ought to be observed, because wisdom is not in harmony [concordat] with iniquity; whence he says: preserve justice. Among other things this is most high justice, that a man be not ungrateful to God, but pour back the gifts collected by him upon the Giver. Whence in Ecclesiasticus: To the One giving me wisdom, I shall give glory 4, because, if you glory over [de] wisdom, by this very thing you lose wisdom; Jeremiah: Let not the wiseman glory in his wisdom, and let not the strongman glory in his fortitude 5. And the reason for this is given [causa huius redditur] in Ezechiel, where it is said: You, full of wisdom and comeliness, were in the delights of the paradise of God; in your comeliness you lost your wisdom 6. -- This is most high justice, that we give God the glory and ask wisdom from Him. Whence in the Canonical (Letter) of (St.) James: If one of you lacks wisdom, let him ask for it from God etc., in faith nothing (is) hesitating 7. And because I am going to speak of wisdom I am lacking wisdom, and similarly you the listeners; for that reason in the beginning let us beg the Lord ...

2. Si consurrexistis cum Christo, etc. Verbum illud competit praesenti tempori et nostro proposito; ipsum est scriptum in Epistola quae legitur in Missa, et est verbum Apostoli ad Colossenses, in quo sacer Apostolus hortatur nos adipisci sapientiam veram et effugere sapientiam vanam. Primum tangit cum dicit: Si consurrexistis cum Christo, quae sursum sunt quaerite, etc. Secundum tangit, cum dicit: non quae super terram; in quo dat intelligere, quod sicut est duplex aspectus animae, sic est duplex eius affectus. Unus aspectus eius est ad caelestia et invisibilia, alius est ad terrena et corruptibilia; ita est etiam duplex affectus animae: unus est aeternorum, et alius est temporalium. Sic est etiam sapientia, quae est desursum, et alia, quae est deorsum. Hortatur nos ad primam et dehortatur nos ad illam, quae est super terram. -- Illam, quae est deorsum, describit beatus Iacobus dicens: Nolite gloriari et mali esse adversus veritatem. Non est enim haec sapientia desursum descendens, sed terrena, animalis, diabolica 8. Ista tota sollicitudine quaerit delectari in omni suavitate, in affluentia divitiarum saecularium et in experientia sensualium delectationum et in excellentia sive in ambitione saecularium pompositatum. In quantum facit hominem sollicitum, ut delectetur omni suavitate in affluentia divitiarum, est terrena; in quantum facit hominem sollicitum, ut delectetur in experientia sensualium delectationum, est animalis; sed in quantum facit hominem sollicitum, ut delectetur in excellentia et ambitione saecularium pompositatum, est diabolica; quia radix omnium malorum superbia, et principaliter damnatur in rege diabolico.

2. If you have risen together with Christ, etc.. That word is suitable [competit] for the present season and our proposal; that (word) is written in the Epistle which is read at Mass, and it is the word of the Apostle to the Colossians, in which the sacred Apostle urges us to obtain true wisdom and to flee from vain wisdom. He touches upon the first when he says: If you have risen together with Christ, seek the things which are above, etc.. He touches upon the second, when he says: not those which are upon the earth; in which he gives one to understand, that as the soul has a twofold power of sight, so does it have a twofold affection. It has one power of sight for heavenly and invisible things, it has another for earthly [terrena] and corruptible things; thus the soul also has a twofold affection: one is for eternal things, and the other is for temporal things. So also is it with the wisdom, which is from above, and the other, which is from below. He urges us towards the first and he discourages [dehortatur] us from that, which is upon the earth. -- That, which is from above, blessed James describes, saying: Do not glory and be evil against the truth. For this is not the wisdom descending from above, but earthly, animal, and diabolic 8. By such [ista] an entire solicitude one seeks to delight in every savor [suavitate], in the affluence of secular riches and in the experience of sensual delectations and in the excellence or in the ambition of secular ostentation [pompositatum]. Inasmuch as it makes a man solicitous, to delight with every savor in the affluence of riches, it is earthly; inasmuch as it makes a man solicitous, to delight in the experience of sensual delectations, it is animal; but inasmuch as it makes a man solicitous, to delight in the excellence and ambition of secular ostentation, it is diabolic; because the root of all evils (is) pride, and it is principally damned in the diabolic kingdom.

3. De ista triplici sapientia dicit Apostolus ad Corinthios: Scriptum est: perdam sapientiam sapientium, et prudentiam prudentium reprobabo 9. Illa est sapientia, de qua dicit Ieremias: Sapientes sunt, ut faciant mala, bene autem facere nescierunt 10. Ad istam sapientiam dispergendam mortuus est Christus, pauper factus est, afflictus et humilis, ut nos doceret cavere ab ista. Apostolus ad Corinthios: Nonne stultam fecit Deus sapientiam huius mundi? 11 quasi dicat, quando in cruce elegit contraria sapientiae mundiali. Apostolus: Placuit Deo per stultitiam praedicationis salvos facere credentes. Quod stultum est Dei sapientius est hominibus 12. Tu appretiaris affluentiam divitiarum, et Christus elegit paupertatem; appretiaris experientiam sensualium delectationum, et Christus elegit acerbitatem passionis; appretiaris ambitionem saecularium pompositatum, et Christus voluit esse despectus et confusus. Et praevaluit sapientia Dei; ideo dicit: Quod stultum est Dei, sapientius est hominibus. Salomon in Proverbiis dicit: Stultissimus sum virorum, et sapientia hominum non est mecum. Non didici sapientiam et non novi sapientiam sanctorum 13. Stultus fuit Christus apparentia exteriori, quando recessit ab appetitu stultorum; stultior, quando voluit affligi; stultissimus vero, quando mortem crucis elegit et turpissima morte mortuus est. -- Haec est sapientia sanctorum. Apostolus: Gloria nostra haec est, testimonium conscientiae nostrae, quia non in sapientia carnali, sed in sapientia Dei conversati sumus in hoc mundo 14. Apostolus: Si quis videtur inter vos sapiens esse in hoc saeculo, stultus fiat, ut sit sapiens 15. Et ad Philippenses dicit: Multi ambulant, quos saepe dicebam vobis, nunc autem et flens dico, inimicos crucis Christi, quorum finis interitus, quorum deus venter est, propter sapientiam animalem; et gloria in confusione ipsorum, propter sapientiam diabolicam; qui terrena sapiunt 16, scilicet propter sapientiam terrenam.

3. Of that threefold wisdom the Apostle says to the Corithianis: It is written: I shall destroy the wisdom of the wise, and reprove the prudence of the prudent 9. That is the wisdom, of which Jeremiah says: They are wise, to do evil things, however they do not know how to do well 10. To disperse that wisdom Christ died, became poor, afficted and humble, to teach us to beware of it. The Apostle to the Corinthians: Has God not made the wisdom of this world stupid? 11 as if he says, when on the Cross He chose things contrary to wordly wisdom. The Apostle: It pleased God through the stupidity of preaching to save those who believe. Because the stupid (deed) belongs to God, it is wiser than men 12. You appreciate the affluence of riches, and Christ chose poverty; you appreciate the experience of sensual delectations, and Christ chose the sharpness of the Passion; you appreciate the ambition of secular ostentation, and Christ wanted to be despised and emptied [consfusus]. And the wisdom of God did prevail; for that reason he says: Because the stupid thing belongs to God, it is wiser than men. Solomon in Proverbs says: I am the most stupid of men, and the wisdom of men is not with me. I have not learned wisdom and I have not known [novit] the wisdom of the saints 13. Christ was stupid by exterior appearance, when He withdrew [recessit] from the appetite of the stupid; more stupid, when He wanted to be afflicted; but most stupid, when He chose the death of the Cross and died by the most foul death. -- This is the wisdom of the saints. The Apostle: This is our glory, the testimony of our conscience, because not in carnal wisdom, but in the wisdom of God have we comported ourselves in this world 14. The Apostle: If anyone seems among you to be wise in this age, let him become stupid, so that he may be wise 15. And to the Phillipians he says: Many walk, (about) whom I often used to tell you, now however also crying I say, they are the enemies of the Cross of Christ, whose end (is) destruction, whose god is their belly, on account of animal wisdom; and (whose) glory (is) in their own confusion, on account of diabolic wisdom; who taste earthly things 16, that is, on account of earthly wisdom.

4. Non ergo sapiatis quae sunt super terram, quia crucifixus est Christus, ut istam sapientiam evacuaret; et sicut mortuus est Christus, ut vanam sapientiam evacuaret et perderet; ita resurrexit et ascendit, ut veram sapientiam doceret et in cordibus nostris stabiliret. In cruce docuit sapientiam mundi spernere, et in caelum vadens docuit sapientiam Dei appetere et fontem vitae diligere. Omnis sapientia mundi est spernere ista. Maxima autem stultitia est mortem Christi evacuare; quod faciunt qui sapiunt quae sunt super terram; ideo oportet sapientiam istam evacuare et sapientiam, quae desursum est, appetere.

4. Do not therefore taste the things which are upon the earth, because Christ has been crucified, to empty that wisdom; and as Christ has died, to empty out [evacuare] and destroy vain wisdom; so has He risen again and ascended, to teach true wisdom and to establish (it) in our hearts. On the Cross He taught (us) to spurn the wisdom of the world, and going into heaven He taught us to seek after [appetere] the wisdom of God and to love [diligere] the Fount of life. Every wisdom of the world is to spurn that. However it is the greatest stupidity to empty out the death of Christ; which they do who taste the things which are upon the earth; for that reason it is proper to empty that wisdom and to seek after the wisdom which is from above.

5. Sed quae est sapientia, quae est desursum? Dicit Sapiens in Ecclesiaste: Vidi, quod tantum praecederet sapientia stultitiam, quantum differt lux a tenebris 17. Ergo dat intelligere, quod sapientia est lux; lux, inquam, descendens desursum a Patre luminum, a quo omne datum optimum et omne donum perfectum 18. Lux ista descendit ad nostram potentiam cognoscitivam illuminandam, ad nostram affectivam laetificandam et ad nostram operativam corroborandam. Descendit a summo Deo in intellectum, ab intellectu in affectum, et usque ad infimum, scilicet operationem. -- Quod sit lux descendens ad nostram potentiam intellectivam illuminandam, patet, quia scribitur in libro Sapientiae, quod est candor lucis aeternae, speculum sine macula Dei maiestatis et imago bonitatis illius. Et cum sit una, omnia potest et in se permanens omnia innovat et per nationes in animas sanctas se transfert et amicos Dei et prophetas constituit. Neminem enim diligit Deus, nisi eum qui cum sapientia inhabitat. Est enim haec speciosior sole et super omnem dispositionem stellarum, luci comparata invenitur prior 19. Merito sapientia sedes Dei dicitur, et anima sit descripta, quae pulcrior est caelo, immo toto universo, sedes Dei est.

5. But what is the wisdom, which is from above? The Wiseman says in Ecclesiastes: See, that only wisdom precedes stupidity, as much as light differs from darkness 17. Therefore he gives one to understand, that wisdom is light; the light, I say, descending from above from the Father of lights, from whom (is) every best given and every perfect gift 18. That light descends to illumine our cognitive power, to gladden our affective (power) and to thoroughly strengthen our operative (power). It descends from God Most High into the intellect, from the intellect into the affection, and even to the lowest (part), that is, operation. -- That there is light descending to illumine our intellective power, is clear, because there is written in the Book of Wisdom, that she is the warmth of eternal light, the reflection without spot of the Majesty of God and the image of His Goodness. And since she is one, she can do all things and remaining continually in herself she makes all things new and throughout the nations she transfers herself into holy souls and establishes them as friends of God and prophets. For God loves no one, except him with whom wisdom dwells. For she is more imposing than the sun and above every dispostion of the stars, compared to light she is found to be superior [prior] 19. Deservedly it is said that wisdom is the throne of God, and that (her) soul, which has been described as more beautiful than heaven, nay than the whole universe, is the throne of God.

6. Secundo descendit sapientia desursum tanquam lux ad nostram affectivam laetificandam. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Vinum et musica laetificant cor, et super utraque dilectio sapientiae 20. -- Vinum et musica laetificant cor, scilicet ab exteriori et secundum species impressas, quae non sunt ipsa veritas, sed similitudo quaedam rei, nec implent animam et non vere, sed phantastice laetificant. Sed ubi est unio secundum veritatem, ibi est iucunditas, ubi veritas illabitur animae et eam replet et laetificat. De ista sapientia dicit Sapiens: Hanc amavi 21 et praeposui illam, regnis et sedibus et divitias nihil esse duxi in comparatione illius 22; super salutem et speciem dilexi illam 23. Venerunt autem mihi omnia bona pariter cum illa et innumerabilis honestas per manus illius; et laetatus sum in omnibus, quoniam antecedebat me ista sapientia 24. Philosophus dicit, quod sapientia maximas habet delectationes. Si magnum est illustrari sapientia, plus est laetificari, in quantum diligit principium suum.

6. Second, wisdom descends from above as a light to gladded our affective (power). Whence in Ecclesiasticus: Wine and music gladded the heart, and above both the delight of wisdom 20. -- Wine and music gladded the heart, that is, from the exterior and according the species impressed, which are not the truth itself, but a certain similitude of the thing, nor do they fill the soul nor do they truly, but in the manner of a phantasm [phantastice], gladden it. But where there is a union according to truth, there is jocundity, where truth slips [illabitur] into the soul it both fills it full and gladdens it. Of that wisdom the Wiseman says: This one have I loved [amavi] 21 and I have placed her before (me), I have reckoned kingdoms and thrones and riches to be nothing in comparison to her 22; above health and beauty have I loved her [speciem dilexi] 23. Moreover all good things have come to me equally with her and innumerable honesty through her hands; and I have been gladden in all things since that wisdom went before me 24. The Philsopher says, that wisdom has the greatest delectations. If it is a great thing to be brightened with wisdom, it is more (s0) to be gladdened (by her), inasmuch as one loves her Principle.

7. Tertio descendit sapientia desursum tanquam lux ad nostram operativam corroborandam. Unde in Ecclesiaste: Sapientia confortavit sapientem super decem principes civitatis 25. Nota, quod nulla virtus subcaelestis, nec terrena nec humana, vel caelestis vel angelica, tantum corroborat animam, sicut supercaelestis sapientia. Unde in libro Sapientiae: Sapientia intravit in animam servi Dei, et stetit contra reges 26. Certamen forte dedit illi, ut vinceret et sciret, quoniam omnium potentior est sapientia 27.

7. Third, wisdom descends from above as a light to thoroughly strengthen our operative (power) [operativam]. Whence in Ecclesiastes: Wisdom makes wisdom strong [confortavit sapientiam] above ten princes of the city 25. Note, that no subcelestial virtue, neither earthly nor human, either heavenly or angelic, so thoroughly strengthens the soul, as supercelestial wisdom. Whence in the Book of Wisdom: Wisdom entered into the soul of the servant of God, and he stood against kings 26. A strong contest did He give to him, so that he may conquer and know, that wisdom is more powerful than all 27.

8. Et sic haec sapientia aedificat Ecclesiam et animam, ut sit habitaculum Dei et domus Dei, domus, dico, amoena, domus pulcra et domus robusta. Dicitur in Matthaeo: Omnis, qui audit verba mea haec et facit ea, assimilabitur viro sapienti, qui aedificavit domum suam supra firmam petram 28. Domus ista principaliter aedificatur a sapientia: unde in Proverbiis: Sapientia aedificat sibi domum, excidit columnas septem 29. Certum est, quod sapientia delectatur esse cum hominibus; unde dicit: Deliciae meae esse cum filiis hominum 30. Quod autem sapientia non habitet nobiscum, non est defectus ex parte sui, sed ex parte nostra. Si volumus, quod lux praedicta habitet in nobis; oportet, quod habeamus columnas septem. -- Sed quae sunt septem columnae huius domus? Nunquid eas fabricabo de capite meo? Absit; sacra Scriptura satis explicat eas. Ubi igitur inveniamus eas? Beatus Iacobus, describens sapientiam, quae desursum est, ponit septem eius conditiones dicens: Primum quidem pudica est, deinde pacifica, modesta, suadibilis, bonis consentiens, plena misericordia et fructibus bonis, non iudicans, sine similitudine 31. Si possem ista vobis explicare, non crederem perdere verba mea, immo darem vobis magnam viam ad sapientiam.

8. And thus this wisdom edifies the Church and the soul, to be a little dwelling of God and the house of God, (to be) I say, a pleasant house, a beautify house, and a oak-strong [robustus] house. There is said in Matthew: Everyone, who hears My words and does them, will be likened to the wise man, who built his house upon firm rock 28. That house is principally built by wisdom: whence in Proverbs: Wisdom builds her own house, she carves out seven columns 29. It is certain, that wisdom delights to be with men; whence she says: My delights: to be with the sons of men 30. However, that wisdom does not dwell with us, is not a defect on her part, but on ours. If we want, the aforesaid light to dwell in us; it is proper, that we have the seven columns. -- But what are the seven columns of her house? Will I make them out of my head? Be off! Sacred Scripture suffiently explains them. Where therefore do we find them? Blessed James, describing the wisdom, which is from above, posits seven conditions for her, saying: First indeed, she is pure [pudica], then peaceable, modest, persuadable, consenting to good things, full of mercy and good fruits, not judging, without simulation [similitudine] 31. If I can explain those to you, I do not believe that I would waste [perdere] my words, nay I would give you a great way towards wisdom.

9. Istae columnae non sunt nisi gradus quidam ad sapientiam. Collige septem columnas. Prima est pudicitia in carne; secunda est innocentia in mente; tertia est moderantia in sermone; quarta est suadibilitas in affectu, et quinta est liberalitas in effectu; sexta est maturitas in iudicio, et septima est simplicitas in intentione. Per ista stabilitur domus sapientiae.

9. Those columns of hers are not but certain steps towards wisdom. Gather the seven columns. The first is purity [pudicitia] in the flesh; the second is innocence in the mind; the third is moderation [moderantia] in speech; the fourth is persuasibility [suadibilitas] in the affection, and the fifth is liberality in effect; the sixth is maturity in judgement and the seventh is simplicity in intention. Through these the house of wisdom is stablized.

10. Prima, dico, columna domus sapientiae est pudicitia in carne; unde dicit: Primum quidem pudica est. Quare ista est prima? Quia haec est, qua oportet incipere; scribitur enim in libro Sapientiae: In malevolam animam non introibit sapientia, nec habitabit in corpore subdito peccatis 32. Corpus impudicum est subditum peccatis; ideo sapientia in eo non potest habitare. Dicitur in libro Sapientiae: Ut scivi, quoniam aliter non possem esse continens, nisi Deus det 33. -- Gregorius Nazianzenus fuit iuvenis mundissimus. Accidit, quod studebat Athenis. Quadam nocte, cum dormiret, venit ad eum domina pulcherrima, habens duas pedissequas tanquam virgines; ipse incepit eam repellere. Et dixit domina: "Non fugias me, quia non veni ad te corrumpendum. Sum sapientia, et duae pedissequae sunt humilitas et castitas sive pudicitia. Si vis me, quae sum sapientia, serva pedisequas istas, scilicet humilitatem et castitatem, quia ubi fuerit superbia, ibi erit contumelia; ubi autem est humilitas, ibi est sapientia" 34. Vera virginitas est, in qua sapientia associatur. Humilitas cum pudicitia est principalis columna sapientiae. Dicit Salomon: Luxuriosa res vinum, et tumultuosa ebrietas; quicumque his delectatur, non erit sapiens 35; et alibi: Vinum et mulieres apostatare faciunt sapientes et arguent sensatos 36. Exemplum tractabile habes in illo Salomone, qui apostatavit propter mulieres usque ad cultum idolatriae; qui tamen repletus fuit sapientia sicut fluvius 37. Si esset taberna, in qua venderetur vinum, quod induceret omnis sapientiae oblivionem; credo quod nullus esset ita fatuus, quod emeret vinum illud. Credo, quod Deus aeternus altissima sui consilii dispensatione permisit Salomon cadere, ut omnes homines doceret fugere mulieres.

10. The first column, I say, of the house of wisdom is purity in the flesh; whence he says: First indeed she is pure. Why is that first? Because this is that, by which it is proper to begin; for it is written in the Book of Wisdom: into a malevolent soul wisdom will not enter, nor will she dwell in a body subdued by sins 32. An impure [impudicum] body has been subdued by sins; for that reason wisdom cannot dwell in it. There is said in the Book of Wisdom: Since I knew, that I could not otherwise be continent, unless God gave it 33. -- (St.) Gregory Nazianzen was a most pure [mundissimus] youth. It happened, that he was studying at Athens. On a certain night, as he slept, there came to him a very beautiful lady, having two attendants as virgins; he began to drive her away. And the lady said: "Do not flee me, because I do not come to corrupt you. I am Wisdom, and (my) two attendands are humility and Chastity or Purity. If you want me, who am Wisdom, keep those attendants (as your own), that is, Humility and Chastity, because where there is pride, there will be contumely; however where there is humility, there is wisdom" 34. True virginity is that, in which wisdom is associated. Humility, with purity, is the principle column of wisdom. Solomon says: A luxurious thing wine, and a tumultuous thing, drunkeness; whoever delights in these, shall not be wise 35; and elsewhere: Wine and women cause wisemen to apostatize and reveal those whoe are sensible [arguent sensatos] 36. You have a ready [tractabile] example in Solomon, who apostatized on account of women even to the cult of idolatry; who nevertheless had been filled full with wisdom as a river 37. If there was a tavern, in which a wine was sold, which induced the forgetfulness of every wisdom; I believe that no one would be so foolish, that he would buy that wine. I believe, that the eternal God by the highest dispensation of His counsel permitted Solomon to fall, to teach all men to flee women.

11. Secunda columna domus sapientiae est innocentia in mente; quod notatur, cum dicit: deinde pacifica. Augustinus dicit, quod "pax est tranquillitas ordinis", scilicet, quando quid humiliter subicit se superiori, aequanimiter se habeat ad parem et discrete praesit inferiori. Omnes, qui sunt filii sapientiae, habent hunc ordinem. Dicitur in Ecclesiastico: Filiis sapientiae, ecclesia iustorum 38. Unde bellum? Si diligeres parem, obedires superiori et praeesses ordinate inferiori, haberes pacem. Qui istam pacem perturbat destruit domum sapientiae. Scribitur in Proverbiis: Qui patiens est multa gubernatur sapientia; qui impatiens est exaltat stultitiam suam 39, et sic pervertit domum sapientiae. Beatus Iabobus: Quis sapiens et disciplinatus inter vos? Ostendat ex bona conversatione operationem suam in mansuetudine sapientiae 40.

11. The second column of the house of wisdom is innocence in the mind; which is noted, when he says: then she is peacable. (St.) Augustine says, that "peace is the tranquility of order", that is, when a thing humbly subdues itself to its superior, regards itself equal to its peer and discretely presides over its inferior. All, who are sons of wisdom, have this order. It is said in Ecclesiaticus: For the sons of wisdom, the church of the just 38. Whence (is) war? If you loved peace, obeyed your superior and presided in an orderly manner over your inferior, you would have peace. He who thoroughly troubles peace has destroyed the house of wisdom. It is written in Proverbs: He who is patient is governed by much wisdom; he who is impatient exalts his own stupidity 39, and thus he perverts the house of wisdom. Blessed James: Who is the wise and disciplined man among you? Let him show from his good comportment his own accomplishment [operationem] in the meekness of wisdom 40.

12. Tertia columna domus sapientiae est moderantia in sermone, et hoc notatur, cum dicit: modesta. Super omnia exigitur moderantia in sermone; unde in Ecclesiastico: Homo sapiens tacebit usque ad tempus, lascivus autem et imprudens non servabunt tempus 41. Omni negotio tempus est et opportunitas 42. Nonne summa est insipientia, ut homo cum eodem gladio transverberet se ipsum et proximum suum? Sermo malus est necans audientem et dicentem. Non potes detrahere proximo, quin te ipsum interficias eodem gladio. Si dico verbum scandalizationis, non possum laedere te, nisi et laedam me. Tanta est vicinitas taciturnitatis et sapientiae, quod stultus, si tacuerit, sapiens reputabitur 43; et sapiens, qui multum loquitur, reputatur stultus. Uno verbo possum dicere detractionem, propter hoc oportet verbis facere stateram 44. Unde summe cavenda est immoderantia sermonis. -- Sermo enim instrumentum est expressivum sapientiae, et ideo moveri debet secundum regulam sapientiae. Unde scribitur: Verba oris sapientis, gratia 45; et Apostolus: Omnis sermo malus de ore vestro non procedat 46. Mirabile est, cum homines sedent ad mensam, ut se spiritualiter reficiant, et unus diabolus loquitur de temporalibus et de detractionibus et omnes, qui sunt in mensa, pascit illo veneno. Mors et vita in manu linguae 47. Si mulier tacuisset, quando diabolus dixit ei: Quare praecepit vobis Deus, ut non comederetis 48 de ligno scientiae boni et mali? non habuisset diabolus occasionem ipsam amplius tentandi. Et philosophi etiam docuerunt discipulos suos, ut tacerent; Cato: "Virtutum prima puto esse compescere linguam". Credo, quod peccata linguae tanta sunt, quod mundus satis habet facere pro illis tantum, si Deus exsurgeret ad iudicandum ea 49.

12. The third column of the house of wisdom is moderation in speech, and this is noted, when he says: modest. Above all things moderation is demanded [exigitur] in speech; whence in Ecclesiasticus: A wise man will keep silent until the (proper) time, however the lascivious and the imprudent will not observe the time 41. For every business there is a season and an opportunity 42. Is it not most high foolishness [insipientia], that a man pierce himself through and his neighbor with the same sword? Evil talk is killing listener and speaker. You cannot detract your neighbor, without slaying yourself with the same sword. If I say a word to scandalize [verbum scandalizationis], I cannot wound you, unless I also wound myself. So close is keeping-silent and wisdom, that the stupid one, who keeps silent, shall be reputed wise 43; and the wiseman, who speaks much, is reputed stupid. With one word I can utter detractions, on account of this it is proper to weigh one's words 44. Whence immoderation of speech is to be most highly feared. -- For talk, as an instrument, is expressive of wisdom, and for that reason it ought to be undertaken [moveri] according to the rule of wisdom. Whence it is written: The words of the mouth of the wiseman, grace 45; and the Apostle: Let not any evil talk proceed from your mouth 46. It is a thing to be wondered at [mirabile], when men sit at the table, to refresh themselves spiritually, and one devil speaks of temporal things and of detractions and all, who are at table, feed from that venum. Death and life in the hand of the tongue 47. If the woman had kept silent, when the devil said to her: Why did God precept you, not to eat 48 from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil? the devil would not have had occasion to tempt her further. And even the philosophers taught their disciples, to be silent; Cato: "The first virtue I think is to feast on one's own tongue". I believe, that the sins of the tongue are so great, that God has to make a world sufficient for them alone, if he rose forth to judge them. 49.

13. Quarta columna domus sapientiae est, quod est suadibilitas in affectu; quod notatur, cum dicit: suadibilis, bonis consentiens. Non est qui sit suadibilis in bono, nisi sit benignus; et hoc etiam concordat cum sapientia. Malignus suadibilis est in malo. Scribitur: Benignus est spiritus sapientiae, et non liberabit maledicum a labiis suis 50. Suadibilitas bona facit appretiari et diligere et eis consentit; et quanto sapientior est homo, tanto suadibilior est in bonis. Unde in Proverbiis: Inauris aurea et margarita fulgens, qui arguit sapientem et aurem obedientem 51. Sicut inauris ornat aurem, et margarita in corona ornat faciem; sic verbum bonum ornat sapientem. Quando sapiens arguitur, se habet, ac si ornaretur. Si enim corrigo me ad verbum admonitionis bonae, quid aliud facio, quam quod illo verbo me orno? Si tamen haec margarita proponitur stulto, conculcat eam ut canis. Unde in Proverbiis: Noli arguere derisorem, ne oderit te; argue sapientem, et diliget te 52. Carissimi! melius est a sapiente corripi quam stultorum adulatione decipi 53. Stultus, quando corripitur, non recedit a malo nec ducitur ad bonum. Qui defectus suos cognoscit, et isti displicent ei, est sapiens. Qui hominem arguit et a malo revocat, plus facit ei obsequii, quam si daret ei totum mundum.

13. The fourth column of the house of wisdom is that, which is persuasibility in affection; which is noted, when he says: persuadable, consenting to good things. There is no one who is persuadable in something good, unless he be kind; and this also agrees with wisdom. The malignant one is persuadable in something evil. It is written: Kind is the spirit of wisdom, and she will not free an abusive word [maledicum] from her lips 50. Good persuasibility causes one to appreciate and love and to consent to (good) things; and as much as a man is wiser, so much is he more persuadable in good things. Whence in Proverbs: A golden earing and a shining pearl, she who exposes wisdom and an obedient ear 51. As an earing ornaments the ear, and a pearl upon a crown ornaments the face; so a good word ornaments wisdom. When the wiseman is exposed, he controlls himself [se habet], even if he is (so) ornamented. For if I correct myself in accord with a word of good admonition, what do I do, but ornament myself with that word? If nevertheless this pearl is proposed to the stupid, he tramples upon it as a dog. Whence in Proverbs: Do not expose a mocker, lest he hate you; expose (your) wisdom, and he will love you. 52. Dearest ones! it is better to be corrected by a wiseman than to be deceived by the adulation of the stupid 53. Stupid (is he), when he is corrected, does not turn back from evil, nor is lead towards the good. He who is acquainted with his own defects, and those displease him, is wise. He who exposes a man and recalls him from evil, shows him more respect [obsequii], that if he gave him the whole world.

14. Quinta columna domus sapientiae est liberalitas in effectu. Sapientia vult habere misericordiam in affectu, sed etiam in effectu. Haec notatur, cum dicit: Plena misericordia et fructibus bonis 54. A fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos 55. Unde in Proverbiis dicitur: Manum suam aperuit inopi et palmas suas extendit ad pauperem 56. Os suum aperuit sapientiae, et lex clementiae in lingua eius 57. De fructu manuum suarum 58 dedit inopi. Docet Sapientia, quod homo faciat opera non ludicra, sed fructuosa, quia bonorum laborum gloriosus est fructus 59. Inter omnia fructuosa opera magis fructuosa sunt opera misericordiae. Date igitur de fructibus manuum vestrarum.

14. The fifth column of the house of wisdom is liberality in effect. Wisdom wants to have mercy in affection, but also in effect. This is noted, when he says: Full of mercy and good fruits 54. By their fruits you shall know them 55. Whence in Proverbs it is said: She opened her hand to the helpless and extended her palms to the poor man 56. He opened his mouth to wisdom, and the law of clemency (is) on his tongue 57. From the fruit of her hands 58 she gave to the helpless. Wisdom teaches, that a man is to accomplish [faciat] not works of play [ludicra], but fruitful ones, because the fruit of good labors is glorious 59. Among all fruitful works, the more fruitful are the works of mercy. Therefore give from the fruits of your hands.

15. Istam misericordiam debent habere qui praeficiuntur ad gubernationem aliorum; unde in Actibus: Considerate ergo, fratres, ex vobis viros boni testimonii, plenos Spiritu sancto et sapientia, quos constituamus ad hoc opus 60 dispensandum. Non esset sapiens dispensator, qui furaretur bona Dei. Si aliquid daretur tibi ad dispensandum familiae, et tu furareris et poneris in bursa tua; nonne credis, quod clamaret contra te familia domini et te diceret pessimum dispensatorem, et diceret dominus: Servum inutilem eiicite in tenebras exteriores? 61 Maior sapientia, quae possit esse, est, quod dispensator fructuose expendat quae habet dispensare, et tradita sunt ei ad dispensandum. Talis fuit beatus Stephanus et Laurentius. Pontifices summi in primitiva Ecclesia non vacabant istis terrenis 62; modo curatur de rebus temporalibus habendis, non dispensandis. Dicit: plena misericordia; Apostolus: Quae seminaverit homo, haec et metet 63. Si dominus daret servo blandum ad seminandum agrum suum, et ille poneret blandum in sacco et non seminaret, male fructificaret terra, immo clamaret contra eum. Sicut misericordia amica est sapientiae, sic avaritia est inimica. Avari derident omnes, qui non amant pecuniam. In Deuteronomio: Munera excaecant oculos sapientum et mutant verba iustorum 64. -- Excaecant oculos, non corporales, sed spirituales; ergo auferunt lumen sapientiae. Scriptum est: Facilius est, camelum transire per foramen acus, quam divitem intrare in regnum caelorum 65, quia habet cor terrenum et ponderosum.

15. Those who are appointed to the governement of others ought to have that mercy; whence in Acts: Therefore consider brothers, those men of good testimony from among you, full of the Holy Spirit and of wisdom, whom we are to constitute to dispense this work 60. One would not be a wise dispenser, who stole the goods of God. If something is given to you to be dispensed to the household [familiaae], and you steal and place it in your purse; do you not believe, that the household of the lord would cry against you and call you the worst dispensor, and that the lord would say: Throw that useless servant into the outer darkness? 61 There is a greater wisdom, which can exist [esse], that the dispensor expend fruitfully those things which he has to dispense and which have been handed over to him to be dispensed. Such was blessed Stephen and Lawrence. The supreme pontiffs in the primitive Church did not vacate those lands 62; now there is care for having temporal goods, not for dispensing them. He says: full of mercy; the Apostle: That which a man sows, this he also reaps 63. If a lord gave his servant grain [blandum] to sow in his field, and he put the grain into a sack and did not sow it, the land would bear bad fruit, nay it would cry out against him. As mercy is a friend to wisdom, so avarice is its enemy. The avarous deride everyone, who do not love money. In Deuteronomy: Gifts thoroughly blind the eyes of the wise and change the words of the just 64. -- They thoroughly blind the eyes, not the corporal ones, but the spiritual; therefore they bear away the light of wisdom. It is written: It is easier, for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of Heaven 65, because he has a earthly and ponderous heart.

16. Sexta columna domus sapientiae est maturitas in iudicio; et hoc notatur, cum dicitur: non iudicans. Maturitas est in iudicio, quando homo non iudicat temerarie. Unde in Ecclesiastico: Iudex sapiens iudicabit populum suum 66, silicet super quem habet auctoritatem. Sed si transcendat auctoritatem, non est iudex sapiens, sed est iudicium temerarium. Si sine auctoritate iudicat, quid est? Certe nihil. Oportet etiam, iudicium sapientis habere zeli rectitudinem et notitiae claritatem. De primo: Os iusti meditabitur sapientiam, et lingua eius loquetur iudicium 67. Iudex iustus est qui iusto zelo movetur, omnia bona approbat et mala reprobat; qui vero non habet rectum zelum non potest bene iudicare. Amor et odium pervertunt iudicium. Si odis me non potest me recte iudicare; et quare? Quia videtur tibi, quod omnia, quae sunt in me, mala sint. -- Item oportet, quod iudex habeat notitiae claritatem. Quomodo iudicarem bene de re ignota? Unde cum amici Iob arguerent eum, quod non esset iustus, dicentes: Deus iustus iustum non punit; et te tamen punit: ergo non es iustus; voluerunt iudicare de occultis. Iob, audiens haec, respondit eis dicens: Convertimini et venite, et non inveniam in vobis ullum sapientem 68. Ideo dicit beatus Iacobus: Non iudicans, non quod homo non debeat iudicare loco et tempore de re, de qua habet certitudinem et auctoritatem et rectum zelum; sed quia iudicant homines malum bonum, et econtra bonum malum. Melius est, si debeam iudicare de alio, quod sentiam bene quam male. Debet homo esse pronior ad clementer excusandum, quam ad male iudicandum. Omnes modo sunt iudicatores iniquarum cogitationum 69. Debet igitur homo non transcendere auctoritatem nec temerarie iudicare sine zeli rectitudine et notitiae claritate. Matthaeus: Nolite iudicare, ut non iudicemini 70. Quod homines defectus alienos intrinsecos iudicant et se negligunt, summa stultitia est. Gregorius: "Animus, quanto curiosior est ad investigandum aliena, tantum stultior est ad cognoscendum propria".

16. The sixth column of the house of wisdom is maturity in judgment; and this is noted, when he says: not judging. There is maturity in judgement, when a man does not judge rashly [temerarie]. Whence in Ecclesiasticus: A wise judge shall judge his own people 66, that is, over whom he has authority. But if he transcends his authority, he is not a wise judge, but (his) judgment is rash. If he judges without authority, what is he? Certainly nothing. It is also proper, that the judgment of the wiseman have rectitude of zeal and clarity of knowledge [notitiate claritatem]. Of the first (it is said): The mouth of the just will meditate wisdom, and his tongue will speak judgement 67. He is a just judge who is moved by a just zeal, approves all good things and reproves evil ones; but he who does not have upright zeal cannot judge well. Love [amor] and hatred pervert judgement. If you hate me you cannot judge me in an upright manner; and why? Because it seems to you, that all the things, which are in me, are evil. -- Likewise it is proper, that the judge have clarity of knowledge. In what manner am I to judge well of an unknown thing? Whence when the friends of Job showed him, that he was not just, saying: The just God does not punish the just; and nevertheless he punishes you; therefore you are not just; they wanted to judge of hidden matters. Job, hearing this, responded to them saying: Turn around and come, and I shall not find any wiseman among you 68. For that reason blessed James says: Not judging, not that a man ought not to judge, by time and place, of a thing, of which he has certitude and authority and upright zeal; but because men judge evil (to be) good, and conversely good (to be) evil. It is better, if I ought to judge of another, that I have a good opinion [sentiam bene] (of him) rather than an evil one. A man ought to be more prone to clemently excuse, than to judge evilly. Nowadays [modo] all are judgers of worthless thoughts 69. Therefore a man ought not transcend his authority nor judge rashly without rectitude of zeal and clarity of knowledge. Matthew: Do not judge, so as not to be judged 70. That men judge the interior defects of another and neglect them in themselves, is most high stupidity. (St.) Gregory: "A spirit, as much as it is more curious to investigate another's things, so much is it the more stupid to know of its own".

17. Septima et ultima columna sapientiae est simplicitas in intentione, quae notatur, cum dicit: sine simulatione. De ista dicitur, quod rex Salomon fecit thronum de ebore grandem, et fecit in eo sex gradus. Aliae columnae sunt in gyro, sed ista est principalissima et in summitate 71. De ista loquitur Apostolus dicens: Quae sursum sunt quaerite 72; et in Ecclesiaste: Quid habet amplius sapiens a stulto, et quid pauper, nisi ut pergat illuc, ubi est vita? 73 Certe, ubi est Christus 74, et cum apparuerit Christus 75, apparebit vita. -- Sed ubi est Christus? Certe, sursum in caelo; Apostolus: Quae sursum sunt quaerite. Igitur in caelo est Christus et vita. Christus fons sapientiae, ipse est huius doni fundamentum et complementum. Apostolus ut sapiens architectus dicit: Fundamentum aliud nemo potest ponere praeter id quod positum est, quod est Christus Iesus 76. Ut dicit quaedam Glossa, homo contrario se habet arbori in radice; arbor enim habet radicem deorsum, homo sursum; et aedificium spirituale habet fundamentum sursum, sed corporale deorsum; Christus igitur est huius doni fundamentum. Idem est etiam eius complementum, quia in ipso sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae et scientiae absconditi 77. In ipso consummatur domus sapientiae. Unde dicitur in Ecclesiaste: Sapientis oculi in capite eius, id est in Christo; stultus in tenebris ambulat 78. In Christo est consummatio omnis boni. Unde in Ioanne: Haec est autem vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum Deum verum et quem missiti Iesum Christum 79. Illa quae sursum sunt, debemus desiderare, videre et facere; et ad ea nos perducat qui sine fine vivit et regnat. Amen.

17. The seventh and last column of wisdom is simplicity in intention, which is noted, when he says: without simulation. Of that it is said, that king Solomon made a great throne from ivory, and made in it six steps. The other columns are round-about [in gyro] but that one is the most principle and on the summit 71. Of that one the Apostle speaks, saying: Seek those things which are above 72; and in Ecclesiastes: What does a wiseman have more than a stupid one, and what a poor man, except that he continues on to that place, where there is life? 73 Certainly, where Christ is 74, and when Christ will appear 75, life will appear. -- But where is Christ? Certainly, above in Heaven; the Apostle Seek the things which are above. Therefore in Heaven there is Christ and life. Christ is the fount of wisdom, He himself is the foundation of this gift and its complement. The Apostle as a wise architect says: No one can place another foundation except that which has been placed, which is Christ Jesus 76. As a certain Gloss says, a man holds himself in a manner contrary to a tree in root; for a tree has its roots below, a man above; and the spiritual edifice has its foundation above, but the corporal below; therefore Christ is the foundation of this gift. Likewise He is also its complement, because in Him have the treasures of wisdom and knowledge been hidden away 77. In Him the house of wisdom is consummated. Whence it is said in Ecclesiastes: The eyes of the wiseman are in his head, that is in Christ: the stupid man walks in darkness 78. In Christ is the consummation of every good thing. Whence in John: This is, moreover, eternal life, that they know Thee the Only True God and Him whom Thou has sent, Jesus Christ 79. Those things which are above, we ought to desire, see and do; and to them may He thoroughly lead us who lives and reigns without end. Amen.

EXPLICIUNT COLLATIONES DE DONIS SPIRITUS SANCTI
HERE FINISH THE CONFERENCES ON THE GIFTS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

1. Col 3, 1-2.

2. Eccli 1, 33.

3. Sap 7, 7.

4. Eccli 51, 23.

5. Ier 9, 23.

6. Ez 28, 12-13.

7. Iac 1, 5-6.

8. Iac 3, 14-15.

9. 1 Cor 1, 19; cf. Is 29, 14.

10. Ier 4, 22.

11. 1 Cor 1, 20.

12. 1 Cor 1, 21.

13. Prov 30, 2-3.

14. 2 Cor 1, 12.

15. 1 Cor 3, 18.

16. Phil 3, 18-19.

17. Eccle 2, 13.

18. Iac 1, 17.

19. Sap 7, 26-29.

20. Eccli 40, 20.

21. Sap 8, 2.

22. Sap 7, 8.

23. Sap 7, 10.

24. Sap 7, 11-12.

25. Eccle 7, 10.

26. Sap 10, 16.

27. Sap 10, 12.

28. Mt 7, 24.

29. Prov 9, 1.

30. Prov 8, 31.

31. Iac 3, 17.

32. Sap 1, 4.

33. Sap 8, 21.

34. Prov 11, 2.

35. Prov 20, 1.

36. Eccli 19, 2.

37. Eccli 47, 16.

38. Eccli 3, 1.

39. Prov 14, 19.

40. Iac 3, 13.

41. Eccli 20, 7.

42. Eccle 8, 6.

43. Prov 17, 20.

44. Eccli 28, 29.

45. Eccle 10, 12.

46. Eph 4, 29.

47. Prov 18, 21.

48. Gen 3, 1.

49. Cf. Iob 31, 14.

50. Sap 1, 6.

51. Prov 25, 12.

52. Prov 9, 8.

53. Eccle 7, 6.

54. Iac 3, 17.

55. Mt 7, 16.20.

56. Prov 31, 20.

57. Prov 31, 26.

58. Prov 31, 16.

59. Sap 3, 15.

60. Act 6, 3.

61. Mt 25, 30.

62. Cf. Act 6, 2-4

63. Gal 6, 8.

64. Deut 16, 19.

65. Mt 19, 24.

66. Eccli 10, 1.

67. Ps 36, 30.

68. Iob 17, 10.

69. Iac 2, 4.

70. Mt 7, 1.

71. 3 Reg 10, 18-19.

72. Col 3, 1.

73. Eccle 6, 8.

74. Col 3, 1.

75. Col 3, 4.

76. 1 Cor 3, 11,

77. Col 2, 3.

78. Eccle 2, 14.

79. Io 17, 3.


1. Col 3:1-2.

2. Eccli 1:33.

3. Ws 7:7.

4. Eccli 51:23.

5. Jer 9:23.

6. Ez 28:12-13.

7. Jm 1:5-6.

8. Jm 3:14-15.

9. 1 Cor 1:19; cf. Is 29:14.

10. Jer 4:22.

11. 1 Cor 1:20.

12. 1 Cor 1:21.

13. Prov 30:2-3.

14. 2 Cor 1:12.

15. 1 Cor 3:18.

16. Phil 3:18-19.

17. Eccle 2:13.

18. Jm 1:17.

19. Ws 7:26-29.

20. Eccli 40:20.

21. Ws 8:2.

22. Ws 7:8.

23. Ws 7:10.

24. Ws 7:11-12.

25. Eccle 7:10.

26. Ws 10:16.

27. Ws 10:12.

28. Mt 7:24.

29. Prov 9:1.

30. Prov 8:31.

31. Jm 3:17.

32. Ws 1:4.

33. Ws 8:21.

34. Prov 11:2.

35. Prov 20:1.

36. Eccli 19:2.

37. Eccli 47:16.

38. Eccli 3:1.

39. Prov 14:19.

40. Jm 3:13.

41. Eccli 20:7.

42. Eccle 8:6.

43. Prov 17:20.

44. Eccli 28:29.

45. Eccle 10:12.

46. Eph 4:29.

47. Prov 18:21.

48. Gen 3:1.

49. Cf. Iob 31:14.

50. Ws 1:6.

51. Prov 25:12.

52. Prov 9:8.

53. Eccle 7:6.

54. Jm 3:17.

55. Mt 7:16.20.

56. Prov 31:20.

57. Prov 31:26.

58. Prov 31:16.

59. Ws 3:15.

60. Act 6:3.

61. Mt 25:30.

62. Cf. Act 6:2-4

63. Gal 6:8.

64. Dt 16:19.

65. Mt 19:24.

66. Eccli 10:1.

67. Ps 36:30.

68. Job 17:10.

69. Jm 2:4.

70. Mt 7:1.

71. 3 Kg 10:18-19.

72. Col 3:1.

73. Eccle 6:8.

74. Col 3:1.

75. Col 3:4.

76. 1 Cor 3:11,

77. Col 2:3.

78. Eccle 2:14.

79. Jn 17:3.


N.B.: Items in square [ ] brackets indicate the Latin term(s) corresponding to the immediately previous English term(s). Items in round ( ) brackets indicate English words added by the English translator for the sake of clarity, usually implicit in the Latin syntax. Principal terms which have consistent signification are indicated with their corresponding Latin term in each first instance; thereafter only when some English or Latin term is diversely or similarly translated, respectively speaking. This English translation has been released to the public domain by its author.