Peter Lombard’s







On the Creation and Formation of Things Corporal and Spiritual
and Many Other Things Pertinent to This


An English Translation with the Latin text in parallel

According to the Quaracchi Edition of 1885

© 2007-2010 Br. Alexis Bugnolo
(unless otherwise specified)

 This is the great “Summa” of Medieval Theology, which was commented on by such Doctors of the Church
as Sts. Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, Albert the Great,
and such eminent theologians as Blesseds John Duns Scotus, Peter of Tarentaise, and Dionysius the Carthusian.


An Introduction to the English Translation of This Work



The Franciscan Archive

is currently sponsoring a project for the publication of an English Translation
of this great work of Master Peter Lombard.
See The Commentary Project for more information.

Book I has already been published, and can be purchased in its entirety on CD-Rom.


The parts of Book II currently published are as follows:




Part I, Chapter 1: That there is one Beginning, not more.
Chapter 2: What it is to create, what to make.
Chapter 3: According to what reckoning are words of this kind:  “to do”, “to make”, said of God.
Part II, Chapter 4:  For what reason has a rational creature been made, that is man and/or Angel.
Chapter 5:  In what manner man is said (to have) been made “for the sake of the reparation of the downfall of the Angels”.
Chapter 6:  For what reason has man been thus instituted, that (his) soul has been united to a body.


Part I, Chapter 1: On the Angels, when they were made.
Chapter 2: That nothing was made before heaven and earth.
Chapter 3: That together with time and with the world the spiritual and corporal creature began.
Part II, Chapter 4:  Where were the Angels then created?
Chapter 5:  That the mater of (things) visible and the nature of invisibles was created together, and each formless.
Chapter 6:  In what manner did Lucifer say:  “I shall ascend into Heaven”?


Part I, Chapter 1:  Angels of what kind were made?
Chapter 2:  Whether all the Angels were equal in essence, wisdom, (and) liberty of judgment?
Chapter 3:  What common and equal (goods) did the Angels have?
Part II, Chapter 4:  Whether they were created good, and/or evil, and whether there was any delay between (their) creation and fall?
Chapter 5:  On the threefold wisdom of the Angels before (their) downfall and/or confirmation.
Chapter 6:  Whether they had any love for God and/or for themselves before (their) downfall?


Chapter 1:  Whether the Angels were created perfect and blessed, or wretched and imperfect?


Chapter 1:  On the confirmation and conversion of those standing, and the aversion and lapse of those falling.
Chapter 2:  Briefly touches upon free will.
Chapter 3:  Whether anything had been given to those standing, by which they were converted.
Chapter 4:  Which grace the Angels needed, and which they did not.
Chapter 5:  Whether their aversion is to be imputed to their falls.
Chapter 6:  Whether the beatitude, which the standing accepted in confirmation, they merited through some grace apportioned at that time.


Chapter 1:  That of the greater and lesser Angels, certain ones fell down, among whom one was loftier, namely Lucifer.
Chapter 2:  Whence and whither they were cast down.
Chapter 3:  For what reason has it not been conceded to them to dwell in Heaven, and/or on Earth.
Chapter 4:  On the prelations of the demons.
Chapter 5:  Whether all the demons are in this gloomy air, or whether some are in Hell.
Chapter 6:  On the power of Lucifer.
Chapter 7:  Whether demons, once conquered by the Saints, thereafter approach other men.


Part I, Chapter 1:  Whether good Angels can sin, and/or evil angels uprightly live.
Chapter 2:  That though each have free will, yet they cannot be bent to each.
Chapter 3:  That the good Angels have a more free judgment after their confirmation than before.
Chapter 4:  That the good Angels cannot sin from their nature, just as they could before.
Part II, Chapter 5:  In what manners evil angels may know the truth of temporal things.
Chapter 6:  That the arts of magic prevail by the virtue and knowledge of the Devil, which is theirs from God.
Chapter 7:  That the matter of visible things does not serve the evil angels at will.
Chapter 8:  That the evil angels are not creators, though through them mages make frogs and other things; just as neither do the good Angels, even if through their ministry creatures come to be.
Chapter 9:  That God alone so works the creation of things, just as He does the justification of the mind.
Chapter 10:  That evil angels can do many things through their own natural vigor, which they cannot do on account of God’s prohibition.


Part I, Chapter 1:  Whether all Angels are corporeal?
Chapter 2:  On the forms, according to which God appeared, and on those, in which the Angels appear.
Chapter 3:  That God in the appearance, according to which He is God, never has appeared to mortals.
Part II, Chapter 4:  In what manner demons are said “to enter” into men.


Chapter 1:  On the distinction of the Angelic Orders.
Chapter 2:  What is named an “Order”? and what is the reason for the name for each?
Chapter 3:  That those names have been taken from the gifts of grace, and have been given them not for their own sake, but for our sake.
Chapter 4:  Whether these Orders were distinguished from the start of creation?
Chapter 5:  Whether all Angels of the same Order are equal?
Chapter 6:  In what manner does Scripture say, that the tenth Order is to be completed from men?
Chapter 7: Whether men are assumed in accord with the number of the standing and/or of the lapsed spirits?


Chapter 1:  Whether all the celestial spirits are sent?
Chapter 2:  Whether “Michael”, “Gabriel”, and “Raphael” are names of Orders, and/or of spirits?


Chapter 1:  That souls have each a good Angel to guard them, and an evil angel to exercise them.
Chapter 2:  Whether Angels make progress in merit and reward up until the Judgment?


Chapter 1:  On the distinction of the Six Days.
Chapter 2:  That some thought that all things were made in matter and form, others that this happened through intervals of time.
Chapter 3:  In what manner corporal things were founded through intervals of time.
Chapter 4:  In what sense are the tenebrae said to be something, and in what sense they are said not to be something?
Chapter 5:  For what reason is that confused matter said to be “formless”? and where it came to be, and how everso much did it ascend on high?
Chapter 6:  On the four manners of Divine Operation.


Chapter 1:  On the work of the first distinction.
Chapter 2:  On the light made on the First Day, whether it was spiritual, or corporal?
Chapter 3:  Where was it made?
Chapter 4:  In what manners “day” is accepted.
Chapter 5:  On the natural order of the computation of Days, and on that, which was introduced as a mystery.
Chapter 6:  On the understanding of these words:  “God said”.
Chapter 7:  In what sense the Father is said “to work in the Son”, and/or “through the Son”, and/or “in the Holy Spirit”.


Part I, Chapter 1:  On the work of the Second Day, on which the firmament was made.
Chapter 2:  Which heaven ought to be understood to have been made then.
Chapter 3:  From which matter was it made?
Chapter 4:  In what manner can waters be above the sky, and what kind are they?
Chapter 5:  On the shape of the firmament.
Chapter 6:  Why Scripture is silent concerning the blessing of the work of this Day.
Part II, Chapter 7:  On the work of the third day, when the waters were gathered together into one.
Chapter 8:  How all the waters were gathered together into one place, even though there are many seas and rivers.
Chapter 9:  On the work of the Fourth Day, on which the luminaries of heaven were made.
Chapter 10:  In what manner is this to be accepted:  Let them be for signs and seasons?


Chapter 1:  On the work of the fifth day, on which the swimming and flying creatures were made
Chapter 2:  On the work of the sixth day, on which were created the animals and creeping things of the land.
Chapter 3:  On venomous and harmful animals.
Chapter 4:  Whether the smallest creatures were created at that time?
Chapter 5:  Why man was made after all things.
Chapter 6:  On the sentence of those who contend that all things were made together.
Chapter 7:  In what manner is God’s “rest” to be understood?
Chapter 8:  In what manner is it to be accepted, that God is said to have completed His work on the seventh day, when He then rested?
Chapter 9:  In what manner are all things made by God said to be “very good”?
Chapter 10:  On the sanctification of the seventh day.


Chapter 1:  On the creation of man.
Chapter 2:  What kind of man was made?
Chapter 3:  On the image and similitude, to which man was made.
Chapter 4:  Why man is said to be an “image” and “made to the image”, but the Son is not said to be “made to the image”?


Chapter 1:  On the creation of the soul, or whether it was made from something?
Chapter 2:  On the insufflation and inspiration of God; when was the soul made, whether in the body, or outside of it?
Chapter 3:  At what age man was made.
Chapter 4:  Why man, having been created outside of Paradise, was placed in paradise.
Chapter 5:  In which manners is “paradise” accepted?
Chapter 6:  On the Tree of Life.
Chapter 7:  On the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.


Chapter 1:  On the formation of the woman.
Chapter 2:  For what reason was she formed from the side of the man, and not from another part of his body?
Chapter 3:  For what reason was the rib withdrawn from the man sleeping, and not waking?
Chapter 4:  Why was she made from a rib, multiplied in itself without the addition of any extrinsic thing?
Chapter 5:  On superior and inferior causes.
Chapter 6:  Of the causes, which are at once in God and in creatures, and of those, which are only in God.
Chapter 7:  On the soul of the woman, which is not from the soul of the man, because souls are not on account of a transduction.


Chapter 1:  On the state of man before the sin, such as it was according to the body, and such as it was after the sin.
Chapter 2:  In what manner is man said to have been made into a living soul?
Chapter 3:  The body of man before the sin was mortal and immortal, after sin dead.
Chapter 4:  Whether the immortality, which it then had, was from the condition of its nature, or whether it was out of the benefice of a grace?
Chapter 5:  Whether man could live forever, using the other trees and not the Tree of Life, with God not commanding, that he eat from it?
Chapter 6:  On the first and second immortality of the body.

DISTINCTION XX:  On the Generation of Adam & Eve’s Posterity

Scholars who wish to request a personal copy of the Latin/English text of this Distinction, along with Bonaventure’s Commentary on the same, may request such by contacting the Commentary Project through the link at the bottom of this page.  This Distinction will be published on the CD-Rom edition of Book II, Deo volente, but not on the Web.


Chapter 1:  On the envy of the Devil, by which he approached to tempt our first parents.
Chapter 2:  On the form, in which he came.
Chapter 3:  On the serpent’s cunning.
Chapter 4:  Whether the Devil chose the serpent, to tempt through him?
Chapter 5:  On the manner of the temptation.
Chapter 6:  On the twofold species of temptation.
Chapter 7:  Why is the sin of man, and not (that) of Angel, is remediable?
Chapter 8:  That not only to the man was the precept given.


Chapter 1:  On the origin of that sin.
Chapter 2:  On the elation of the woman.
Chapter 3:  On the elation of the man.
Chapter 4:  Who was more delinquent, the man, or the woman?
Chapter 5:  On excusable and inexcusable ignorance.
Chapter 6:  Whether a will preceded that sin?


Chapter 1:  For what reason did God permit, that man be tempted, whom He knew was going to fall?
Chapter 2:  Of what kind was man, according to his soul, before the sin?
Chapter 3:  On the threefold knowledge of man before the Fall.
Chapter 4:  Whether man was prescient of those things which were going to be for him?


Part I, Chapter 1:  On the grace and power of man before the Fall.
Chapter 2:  On the help given man in creation, by which he was able to stand.
Chapter 3:  On free will.
Chapter 4:  On man’s sensuality.
Chapter 5:  On man’s reason and its parts.
Part II, Chapter 6:  On the similar order of sinning in us and in our first parents.
Chapter 7:  That in us is the man and the woman and the serpent.
Chapter 8:  On the spiritual marriage of man and woman in us.
Chapter 9:  In what kind of manner is temptation consummated in us through those three?
Chapter 10:  When the woman alone eats the forbidden food.
Chapter 11:  When the man also eats.
Chapter 12:  When is sin venial and/or mortal?
Chapter 13:  In which manners “sensuality” is accepted in Scripture.


Chapter 1:  The definition of “free will” according to the philosophers.
Chapter 2:  In what kind of manner is ‘free will’ accepted in God.
Chapter 3:  That the Angels and Saints have free will.
Chapter 4:  That free will will be freer, when it will not be able to sin.
Part II, Chapter 5:  On the difference of the liberty of judgment according to diverse times.
Chapter 6:  On the four states of free will.
Chapter 7:  On the corruption of free will through sin.
Chapter 8:  On the three manners of liberty of judgment:  from necessity, from sin, from misery.
Chapter 9:  On the liberty, which is on account of grace, and which is on account of nature.


Chapter 1:  On operating and cooperating grace.
Chapter 2:  What is a will?
Chapter 3:  Which is the grace prevenient to good will?
Chapter 4:  That the good will, which is anticipated by grace, is prevenient to certain gifts of God.
Chapter 5:  That the thought of good precedes faith.
Chapter 6:  That understanding is prevenient to both the thought of and the delectation in the good.
Chapter 7:  Whether man works the good, through free will, without grace.


Chapter 1:  Whether the grace which is said to be “operating” and “cooperating” is the same?
Chapter 2:  In what manner grace merits to be increased.
Chapter 3:  On the three kinds of goods.
Chapter 4:  Among which goods is free will?
Chapter 5:  On virtue, what is it, and what is its act?
Chapter 6:  On the grace, which liberates the will, if it is, and/or is not, a virtue?
Chapter 7:  In what manner good merits start out of grace, and of which grace is this understood?
Chapter 8:  That good will is principally said to be a “grace”.
Chapter 9:  According to which reckoning is faith said “to merit justification”?
Chapter 10:  On the gifts of the virtues, and on the grace, which is not a merit, but which causes merit.
Chapter 11:  That the same is the use of virtue and the use of free will, but of virtue principally.
Chapter 12:  Certain authors think, that the virtues are the good uses of free will, that is, of the act of the mind.


Chapter 1:  On the Pelagian heresy.
Chapter 2:  That the Pelagians use the sayings of St. Augustine in testimony of their error.
Chapter 3:  In what manner St. Augustine determined those words in his Retractations.
Chapter 4:  On the heresy of Jovinian and Mani, which St. Jerome crushed with one blow.


Chapter 1:  Whether man before original sin was in want of operating and cooperating grace?
Chapter 2:  If man had the virtues before the Fall.
Chapter 3:  On the ejection of man from Paradise.
Chapter 4:  In what manner is this to be understood:  “Lest he take of the Tree of Life and live unto eternity”?
Chapter 5:  On the flaming sword placed before the gates of Paradise.
Chapter 6:  Whether man ate of the Tree of Life before the sin?


Chapter 1:  That through Adam sin and punishment passed into his descendents.
Chapter 2:  Whether that sin, which passed into all men, was the original one, and/or the actual one?
Chapter 3:  Certain ones think that it was the original one.
Chapter 4:  In what manner they assign, that it entered into the world.
Chapter 5:  That it was truly the original sin, which passed into his descendents.
Chapter 6:  What is original sin?
Chapter 7:  That original sin is a fault.
Chapter 8:  That original sin is said to be the “fomes of sin”, that is “concupiscence”.
Chapter 9:  What is understood by this name of “concupiscence”, which is the “fomes of sin.”
Chapter 10:  That through Adam original sin, that is concupiscence, entered into all.
Chapter 11:  Whether the sin, in which all have sinned, is the original one?
Chapter 12:  Out of which sense has it been said, that through the disobedience of one many have been constituted sinners?
Chapter 13:  That the original sin was in Adam and is in us.
Chapter 14:  In what manner are all said “to have been in Adam”, when he sinned, and “to have descended from him”?
Chapter 15:  That nothing extrinsic is converted into the human substance, which is out of Adam.

DISTINCTION XXXI:  On the Manner of the Transmission of Original Sin

Scholars who wish to request a personal copy of the Latin/English text of this Distinction, along with Bonaventure’s Commentary on the same, may request such by contacting the Commentary Project through the link at the bottom of this page.  This Distinction will be published on the CD-Rom edition of Book II, Deo volente, but not on the Web.


Chapter 1:  In what manner original sin is forgiven in Baptism..
Chapter 2:  Whether the foulness, which one contracts out of the violent passion of one’s parents, is washed away in Baptism?
Chapter 3:  Whether God is the author of that concupiscence?
Chapter 4:  Why is that sin imputed to the soul?
Chapter 5:  Whether the former sin is necessary, and/or voluntary?
Chapter 6:  Why God joins the soul to the body, knowing that it will be stained thereby.
Chapter 7:  Whether souls on account of (their) creation are equal in natural gifts?


Chapter 1:  Whether little ones bear from their origin the sins of all their preceding parents, as they do the sin of Adam?
Chapter 2:  In what manner, in that one first sin, several are found.
Chapter 3:  Whether the sin of Adam is more grave than all the others?
Chapter 4:  Whether that sin was forgiven for our first parents?
Chapter 5:  In what manner are the sins of parents visited and not visited upon their sons?


Chapter 1:  On actual sin.
Chapter 2:  What the origin and cause of the first sin was.
Chapter 3:  What was the secondary cause of evils?
Chapter 4:  On which account the cause of evils is not but in a good thing?
Chapter 5:  That in these matters the rule of dialectics concerning contraries deceives.


Chapter 1:  What is a sin?
Chapter 2:  On sin.
Chapter 3:  Whether an evil act, inasmuch as it is a sin, is a corruption and/or privation of the good?
Chapter 4:  In what manner can sin corrupt a good, since it is nothing?
Chapter 5:  In what kind of manner man distances himself from God.
Chapter 6:  Whether a punishment is a deprivation of a good?


Chapter 1:  Certain acts are a sin an a punishment for sin, certain ones a sin and a cause of sin, but others a sin and a cause of and a punishment for sin.
Chapter 2:  Whether a sin is a cause of sin, inasmuch as it is a sin?
Chapter 3:  That not every sin is a punishment for sin.
Chapter 4:  Whether some sins are essentially punishments for sin?
Chapter 5:  That, though a sin be a punishment for sin, the sin is from the man, the punishment from God.
Chapter 6:  On certain acts, which are undoubtedly sins and punishments, and inasmuch as we suffer by them, are not sins.


Chapter 1:  That some think, that evil acts are in no manner from God.
Chapter 2:  Out of what sense has it been said:  “God is not the author of evil”?



For the Publication Schedule for the Rest of Book II, of Master Peter’s Book of Sentences, see The Commentary Project






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